The study of the Earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.
The study of cultural products and norms and their variations across and relations to spaces and places.
Branch of science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere.
An ongoing process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade.
A medium-scale area of land or water, smaller than the whole areas of interest (which could be, for example, the world, a nation, a river basin, mountain range, and so on), and larger than a specific site.
Learned and shared behavior by a group of people empowering them with a distinct "way of life" ; it includes both material and immaterial components.
Distinct geographical areas or properties uniquely "..represent[ing] the combined work of nature and of man.."
The study and practice of making geographical maps.
The crude birth rate minus the crude death rate of a population.
Rate of Natural Increase (RNI)
A model used to represent the process of explaining the transformation of countries from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and low death rates as part of the economic development of a country from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economy.
The physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.
A residential area which has developed without legal claims to the land and/or permission from the concerned authorities to build; as a result of their illegal or semi-legal status, infrastructure and services are usually inadequate.
A particular kind of system for encoding and decoding information.
A language systematically used to communicate between persons not sharing a mother tongue, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both persons' mother tongues.
A religion that attempts to operate on a global scale and to appeal to all people wherever they reside.
A religion that primarily attracts one group of people living in one place.
The effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation.
A force that makes a body follow a curved path:it is always directed orthogonal to the velocity of the body, toward the instantaneous center of curvature of the path.
The building and maintaining of colonies in one territory by people from another territory.
A method of decision-making in multi-national political communities, wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states.
- Refers to rich, well off countries / The "haves"
- Poor countries / "have nots"
Comprises the total value produced within a country (i.e. its gross domestic product), together with its income received from other countries (notably interestand dividends), less similar payments made to other countries.
Gross National Income (GNI)
A basic measure of a country's overall economic output.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Theory uses the long-term equilibrium exchange rate of two currencies to equalize their purchasing power.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
A measurement of population per unit area or unit volume.
Scale that expresses ratios, such as 1:63,500. This means 1 unit on the map is 63,500 units on earths surface.
Scale - Representative Fraction (RF)
Scale that expresses distance as a statement, such as "one centimeter is equal to one kilometer."
Scale - Verbal
A means of visually showing the scale of a map, nautical chart, engineering drawing, or architectural drawing
Scale - Bar/Linear
Designated using a specific pairing of latitude and longitude.
The location of one object relative to another and another or in a general area.
The Changing Global Environment
A scientific theory that postulates that Earth is made up of a large number of geological plates that move slowly across it's surface.
A linear-shaped lowland between highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
An area where large numbers of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of a Pacific Ocean.
Ring of Fire
Tropical climates / Close to the equator / Warm year round
- Tropical rain forrest (Brazil, Congo Basin, SE Asia)
- Tropical Monsoon - Short dry season / Monsoon - seasonal wind
- Tropical Savanna - Longer dry season / Surrounds tropical rain forrest
Climate - A
Arid climates - Evaporation greater than precipitation / High pressure
- Steppe / Grasses (Short)
- Desert / Dry climate / Little to no grass
Climate - B
Mild winter climates - Controlled by ocean currents / Humid sub-tropical / Mediterranean / Marine west coast
Climate - C
Severe winter climates - Controlled by continentality / Humid continental / Sub-arctic
Climate - D
Polar climates - Controlled by latitude
- Tundra (Siberia)
- Ice Caps (Greenland & Antarctica)
Climate - E
Highland climates - Controlled by altitude (Mountain ranges)
Climate - H
A graphical depiction of the monthly precipitation and temperature conditions for a selected place.
The state of the atmosphere at a given time and place, with respect to variables such as temperature, moisture, wind velocity, and barometric pressure.
The tendency of land to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity.
The increase in the average temperature of Earth's near-surface air and oceans since the mid-20th century and its projected continuation.
Caused by an atmosphere containing gases that absorb and emit infrared radiation.
Climatically and geographically defined similar climatic conditions communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems.
Considered part of the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome by ecologists, based on similar temperate climates, moderate rainfall, and grasses, herbs, and shrubs, rather than trees, as the dominant vegetation type.
Refers to a biome region characterised by grassland plain without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
The extreme deterioration of land in arid and dry sub-humid areas due to loss of vegetation and soil moisture; desertification results chiefly from man-made activities and influenced by climatic variations.
A self-sufficiency farming in which farmers grow only enough food to feed their families. The typical farm has a range of crops and animals needed by the family to eat during the year.
Involved new agricultural techniques using genetically altered seeds, coupled with high inputs of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
A period of growth within an industrialized economy or nation in which the relative importance of manufacturing, lessens and that of services, information, and research grows.
Post Industrial Economy
A dry area on the mountainside facing away from the direction of the wind.
A plateau region located in the eastern United States between the Atlantic Coastal Plain and the main Appalachian Mountains, stretching from New Jersey in the north to central Alabama in the south.
Exists as a nearly continuous belt of coniferous trees across North America.
Areas where the subsoil is permafrost, or permanently frozen soil.
An extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas.
A demographic and social process whereby people move from urban areas to rural areas.
Denotes the socio-cultural changes in an area resulting from wealthier people buying housing property in a less prosperous community.
A group of humans whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage that is real or assumed - sharing cultural characteristics.
An agreement signed by the governments of the United States, Canada, and Mexico creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
When a nation allocates considerable political power to units of government beneath the national level.
A group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland, Russia and Alaska.
The largest and newest federal territory of Canada. (Inuit's Land)
A forum, created by France in 1975, for governments of six countries in the world: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. They confer regularly on key global economic and political issues.
Group of Eight (G-8)
Involves changing natural resources into primary products. Major businesses in this sector include agriculture, agribusiness,fishing, forestry and all mining and quarrying industries.
Includes those economic sectors that create a finished, usable product: manufacturing and construction.
Sector that produces a service instead of just an end product.
Sector that concerns the following services: information generation, information sharing, consultation, education and research and development.
- An urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
- A historical, economic and cultural region of eastern Ukraine.
- A historical region of Central Europe located mostly in present-day Poland, with parts in the Czech Republic and Germany.
An expression of mutual dependency based on an ability to produce goods in one area which are needed in another.
A geopolitical term originally used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or non-cooperative with each other. (Originates in Bulgaria)
Term applied to eastern Europe because of political fracturing and splintering.
Any zonal area that serves the purpose of keeping two or more other areas (often, but not necessarily, countries) distant from one another, for whatever reason.
An economic, political and cultural union of 27 member states, located primarily in Europe.
European Union (EU)
A union in Western Europe that comprises three neighbouring countries, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg.
A long, narrow inlet with steep sides, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.
A location of a place in relation to another place. (i.e. south or downhill)
A low-lying tract of land enclosed by embankments known as dikes, that forms an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually-operated devices. (Netherlands)
Workers from Europe's agricultural periphery (Greece, Turkey, Southern Italy, solicited to work in