1. Carbohydrates
    • functions: energy storage and supply, structure
    • monomer: monosaccharides
    • polymers: polysaccharides
    • elements: carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
    • bonds: glycosidic
    • tests: iodine solution for starch- turn from orange to black/blue, Benedict's solution for reducing sugars- turns from blue to red at temp 80oC
  2. Proteins
    • functions: structure, transport, enzymes, antibodies, most hormones
    • monomer: amino acid
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    • polymer: polypeptide
    • elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur
    • bonds: peptide
    • tests: buiret test- turns from blue to lilac
  3. Lipids
    • functions: membranes, energy supply, thermal insulation, protective layers, electrical insulation, some hormanes
    • monomer: monoglyceride
    • polymer: triglyceride
    • elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    • bonds: ester
    • tests: ethanol emulsion- white emulsion
  4. what is metabolism?
    the sum total of all the biochemical reactions taking place in the cells of an organism
  5. Nucleic acids
    • functions: information molecules, carry instructions for life
    • monomer: nucleotides
    • polymer: DNA, RNA
    • elements: carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus
  6. Condensation reactions
    • a water molecule is released
    • a new covalent bond is formed
    • a larger molecule is formed by the bonding together of smaller molecules
  7. Hydrolysis reactions
    • a water molecule is used
    • a covalent bond is broken
    • smaller molecules are formed by the splitting of a larger molecule
  8. Glucose
    • alpha: the OH at C1 is below the plane of the ring
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    • beta glucose: the OH at C1 is above the plane of the ring
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  9. glycogen
    • made up of alpha glucose subunits
    • larger molecule
    • more branches then starch
    • more compact
    • energy storage
    • Image Upload 4
Card Set
biological molecules