- · Best defense for WWI
- · Accurate rifles w/magazine
- · A/C could not hit targets w/any
- · Poison gas didn’t work because of the
- · Bad conditions to be in
Treaty of Versailles
- signed June 28, 1919. A peace treaty between Germany and the Allies.
- · Req’d Germany to accept
- responsibility for the war
- · Germans can’t have A/C, subs, or
- Atrillery & pd. $33 billion in
- · Limited Germany to 100,000 troops
- · Lost territory to the east, north of
- PolandIt created 10 new countries
League of Nations: All members must take action against an aggressor
Article Ten obliges signatories to guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all member nations against outside aggression, and to consult together to oppose aggression when it occurs.
Wilson did declare, that the United States would be morally bound to adhere to the League’s resolutions.,
- for Wilson, A moral bond was infinitely superior to a mere legal one. Article Ten was, for him, "a very grave and solemn obligation."
- Article 10 is the reason why the US did not ratify the treaty of Versailles
“War Guilt” Clause
Part of the treaty of Versailles where Germany accepts responsibility for the war in exchange for acknowledging that Germany will never pay completely for the war damages
Beer Hall Putsch
Putsch is German for coup or to overthrow
- · A failed attempt to seize power in
- Munich, Bavaria, & Germany in 1923 by the NAZI party and Adolf Hitler
- · Beer halls were places to go & drink
- beer and discuss politics.
- · The coup consisted mostly of x-
- · Hitler was arrested & used his trial
- to spread his ideas.
- · While in jail he began writing his
- book called “Mein Kampf” meaning
- “My Struggle” or “My Battle” the
- book was all lies.
1932 German Presidential Election
- Hindenburg 50% Independent (re-elected after 7 yrs as pres.)
- Hitler 30% NAZI Party
- Thaelman 13% Communist Party
- In 1933 Hindenburg reluctant but appointed Hitler as Chancellor, hated communists & thought he could control Hitler
- 2 years later Hindenburg died & Hitler eliminated the position of president making him sole dictator
- The constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic 1919 – 1933.
- The constitution technically remained in effect throughout the existence of the Third Reich from 1933 -1945.
- Following the end of World War I, a German National Assembly gathered in the town of Weimar, in the state of Thuringia, in January 1919 to write a constitution for the Reich.
- The nation was to be a democratic federal republic, governed by a president and parliament.Some of the noteworthy provisions include those provisions which proved significant in the demise of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Third Reich.
- was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933. Event is pivotal in the establishment of Nazi Germany.
- Marinus van der Lubbe (communist) was caught starting the fire (the whole event may have been a set up by the NAZIs.
- This led to blaming the communist party
- This led to arresting communist throughout Germany
- Later Socialist Workers Party outlawed
- Enabled 1933 Act
- · Emergency powers for Chancellor
- · Suspend civil liberties
- · Outlaw all political parties except NAZI party
- · Concentration camps created for political enemies
- meaning "coordination", "making the same", "bringing into line", is a Nazi term for the process by which they successively established a system of totalitarian control and tight coordination over all aspects of society. A historian translated the term as "forcible-coordination".
- Among the goals of this policy was “Big Brother”
- This also included the formation of various organizations with compulsory membership for segments of the population, in particular the youth.
- Boys served as apprentices in the Pimpfen ("cubs") beginning at the age of six, and at age 10, entered the "Young German Boys" and served there until entering the Hitler Youth proper at age 14. Boys remained there until age 18, at which time they entered into the "Labor Service" and the armed forces.
- Girls became part of the "Young Maidens" at age 10, and at age 14 were enrolled in the "League of German Maidens". At 18 girls went generally to the eastern territory for a year of labor on a farm.
- In 1936 membership of the Hitler Youth numbered just under 6 million.
All Quiet On the Western Front (1929)
- All Quiet on the Western Front 1929 written by Erich Remarque, a WWI veteran (Germany)
- It’s an anti-war novel. It shows the true horrors of war
- It also shows a defeated Germany.
- The Nazi government required a populace that was whipped into a patriotic frenzy, the better to recruit soldiers with.
- All Quiet on the Western Front inspires pacifism. Hitler also fought in WWI at the same time Remarque did. It is quite possible that he saw the experience of war differently and simply did not like Remarque's realistic account.
- 1938, Czech promised Hitler the Sedetenland region in exchange for not taking anything else.
- Neville Chamberlain signed the agreement
- 6 mos later Hitler takes Czechoslavakia
- Taught the west not to negotiate with dictators
- 1939 USSR & Germany make a pact to conquer & divide Poland in ½ because Germany wanted the part of Poland where ethnic Germans lived. Once they agreed on what the division would be, Hitler created an incident and attacked Poland.
- While Germany was attacking Poland, Russia took over the Eastern side.
- Poland had an alliance w/GB & France. So they declared war on Germany
- an all-mechanized force concentration of tanks, infantry, artillery and air power, concentrating overwhelming force at high speed to break through enemy lines, and, once the latter is broken, proceeding without regard to its flank.
- Through constant motion, the blitzkrieg attempts to keep its enemy off-balance, making it difficult to respond effectively at any given point before the front has already moved on.
- They break thru at a given point w/everything they have then circle around & come in from behind.
- Sept. 1940 – May 1941
- 43,000 killed
- 1 mill. Homes destroyed
- Radar was invented and & helped GB get warning
- GB fighters were able to prevent bombings later
Rape of Nanking
For 6 weeks the Japanese captured the city & raped & murdered 300,000 civilians in the most gruesome ways possible.
- The Nye Committee, officially known as the Special Committee on Investigation of the Munitions Industry, was a committee of the US Senate which studied the causes of US involvement in WW I. It was a significant factor in heightening public and political support for neutrality in the early stages of WW II.
- The committee documented the huge profits that arms factories had made during the war & made headlines by drawing connections between the wartime profits of the banking and munitions industries to America's involvement in WW I. This investigation of these "merchants of death" helped to bolster sentiments for isolationism.
- During the 1920s and 1930s, dozens of books and articles appeared which argued that arms manufacturers had tricked the United States into entering World War I
- The first hearings were in September 1934 and the final hearings in February 1936. The hearings covered four topics:
- * The munitions industry
- * Bidding on Government contracts in
- * the shipbuilding industry
- * War profits
- * The background leading up to U.S.
- entry into WW I.
Neutrality Legislation (Acts) 1935
- Outlawed trade with belligerents
- The US wanted to appear neutral in the war
- The US was pushing with staying out of the war & FDR had his hand on the pulse of America
America First Committee
- Was against the US entry into WW2
- Established September 4, 1940 defunct after the attack upon Pearl Harbor in December 1941
- it was likely the largest anti-war organization in American history
- Did not trust Roosevelt
- The day after Roosevelt's lend-lease bill was submitted to the US Congress, America First staunchly opposed the convoying of ships, and the placing of economic pressure on Japan.
- In order to achieve the defeat of lend-lease and the perpetuation of American neutrality, the AFC advocated four basic principles:
- * The United States must build an
- impregnable defense for America.
- * No foreign power, nor group of
- powers, can successfully attack a prepared America.
- * American democracy can be
- preserved only by keeping out of
- the European war.
- * "Aid short of war" weakens national
- defense at home and threatens to
- involve America in war abroad.
Cash and Carry
- A policy requested by FDR @ a special session of the US Congress after the attack on Poland
- It replaced the Neutrality Acts
- The revision allowed the sale of material to belligerents, as long as they arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash,
- They assumed all risk in transportation.
- The purpose was to hold neutrality between the US & Europe while still giving material aid to Britain,
- It exploited the fact that Germany had no funds and could not reliably ship across the British-controlled Atlantic.
- the name of the program under which the US supplied the UK & USSR & other Allied nations with large amounts of war material.
- It was signed into law on March 1941,
- a year and a half after the outbreak of the European war,
- Although it did not formally establish the United States as a combatant in the war, this act ended the pretense of its neutrality.
- Adolf Hitler recognized this and in response ordered German submarines to attack US vessels.
- Garden Hose analogy (discuss terms & price later)
- The terms of the agreement provided that the material was to be used until time for their return or destruction.
- The US knew there was 2B an attack but had a lot of misinformation
- They sent a/c carriers to the Philippines to fortify their position
- Only Battleships were destroyed
- Caused the US to enter the war, they declared war on the Japanese
- Hitler declared war on the US 3 days later
Executive Order 9066
FDR authorizes Sec of War to call certain areas in the US as war zones. This later led to Japanese Internment Camps
Zoot Suit Riots
- The Zoot Suit Riots were riots in June 1943 during WW II that erupted in Los Angeles between white Sailors and Marines stationed throughout the city and Mexican Americans & Mexicans from East LA, who were recognizable by their zoot suits.
- The Los Angeles City Council issued an ordinance banning the wearing of "zoot suits" after Councilman Norris Nelson stated "The zoot suit has become a badge of hoodlumism".
The riots began in Los Angeles, during a period of rising tensions between American servicemen stationed in So Cal and Los Angeles' Mexican-American community.
Many servicemen resented seeing so many Latinos socializing in clothing many considered unpatriotic and extravagant in wartime. Zoot Suits were contrary to rationing of cloth/fabric