science of study of disease.
cause of a disease
science studies the incedence and causes of a disease.
communicable disease; contagiouse and cought. ex the flu
non comunicable= non contagiouse- heart attack.
invasion by a pathogen.
organisms that live on/in host w/o causing a disease.
-they have a symbiotic role.
determination of cause of a disease
the disease would have to pass or follow the four steps of kuch's postulates.
agencies in keeping track of disease
center of disease control/ prevention in Atlanta Georgia.
morbility mortality weekly report
world health organization
center for disease control and preventioon
in Atlanta, GA
morbidity- # of individuals having a particular disease w/in a given amount of time.
mortality- # of death for a disease.
reporting communcable/ infectous disease
- 1. local health authorities
- 2. county health authorities.
- 3. state department of health.
- 4. CDC.
- 5. WHO.
disesase constantly present in a reletively small # of victims.
unusaul occurance of a disease in a high # population in a limmited amount of time.
series of epedemics affecting affecting several areas of the world.
disease that appear at irregular and unussaul periods of time.
how disease are communicated:
resevior of infection- host or local enviornment that supprts the survival and multiplication of the pathogen.
- -2.other animals.
- -4.food/ drink (contaminated)
- -6.fomites- contaminated
- inanimate objects.
- respiratory secretions
- ~sneeze, cough, saliva0- kissing and speaking.
- example: cold, polio, sore throat
- hands carry enteropathic (bowel/feces)
- person carrying pathogen transmits it to something else.
- ex: person to food
- -food piosoning
- person eating/drinking from utensils.
air borne disease:
-particles furming in the air, contaminated with a pathogen.
- A.dust particles.
- B. droplet nuclei- contain moisture.
they stay suspended in the air and u breath them in.
- inanmate objects
- surgical instuements, glass, linnens.
- -via inhalation
- -self injection
carries pathogen w/o having the infection.
if it carries the pathogen outside of the body= mechanical transmission. (flies)
if it carries the pathogen w/ in the body= biological transmission.
- infection transmittecd by lower animals.
- rats, bats, dogs etc.
- nosocomial infections
- hospital= resevoir of infections.
use of chemicals to kill or interfere with the org. causing the disease eityh out harming the host.
any substance made by an org. to kill or inhibit another org.
- today we have
- -naturally occuring
to keep alive but not allow to reproduce.
principles of chemotherapy:
1. reletively non-toxic to the host, while selectively toxic to the pathogen.
2. must reach desired body sight in effective dosage. (minimum inhibatory concentration MIC)
what effects the MIC?
- initial dosage
- patients health
- nature of pathogen
- site of infection
2 or more diff. drugs @ once. has a less effect than one drug by itslef.
this is known as a synergistic effect.
organism must be sensitive to drug in MIC
inhibition of formation of certain vtal metabolites.
inhibition of cell wall formation.