World Civ Industrial Revolution

  1. Jethro Tull
    Created the seed drill, which allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths. A larger share of the seeds now took root, boosting crop yields.
  2. Eli Whitney
    He created a machine that multiplied the amount of cotton that could be cleaned.
  3. Robert Fulton
    Built a steamboat called the Clermont, which later ferried passengers up and down the Hudson River.
  4. McAdam
    Worked on improving British roads. He equipped road beds with a layer of large stones for drainage. On top he placed a carefully smoothed layer of crushed rock, making it easy to travel even in rainy weather.
  5. George Stephenson
    Began work on the world’s first railroad line. It used four locomotives that Stephenson had designed and built
  6. Adam Smith
    Defended the idea of a free economy, or free markets. He thought that economic liberty guaranteed economic progress, as a result, government should not interfere. He based his ideas off of the 3 natural laws of economics. The three natural laws of economics were: the law of self-interest, the law of competition, and the law of supply and demand. Encouraged laissez-faire capitalism.
  7. Karl Marx and Engels
    They introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism. Marx worked with Engels to write The Communist Manifesto in which they outlined their ideas. They believed that human societies have always been divided into warring classes. During their time, they were the employers and the workers. They believed the Industrial Revolution had enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor. They predicted that the workers would overthrow the owners, because the workers would “have nothing to lose but their chains”. They believed that economic forces alone dominated society.
  8. Darwin
    Came up with the Theory of Evolution. He said that all forms of life, including human beings, evolved from earlier living forms that had existed millions of years ago. He also believed in the theory of natural selection, that populations tend to grow faster than the food supply and must compete for food. The members of a species that survive are those that are best adapted to their environment. These surviving members of a species produce offspring that share their advantages.
  9. Bell
    Invented telephone
  10. Marconi
    First radio
  11. Edison
    Light bulb
  12. Ford
    Created affordable cars using interchangeable parts. He also used an assembly line.
  13. Wright Brothers
    Flew a gasoline-powered flying machine at Kitty Hawk, starting the aircraft industry.
  14. Pasteur
    Created the germ theory of disease. He learned that heat killed bacteria. This led him to develop the process of pasteurization to kill germs in liquids. Soon, it became clear that bacteria also caused diseases.
  15. Lister
    A British surgeon who thought germs might explain why half of surgical patients died of infections. He ordered that his surgical wards be kept spotlessly clean. He insisted that wounds be washed in antiseptics. As a result, 85 percent of his patients survived, versus the 50% that survived before.
  16. Mendel
    Discovered that there is a pattern to the way that certain traits are inherited. His work began the science of genetics.
  17. Mendeleev
    Created the Periodic Table. On this chart he organized all the known elements in order of weight, from lightest to heaviest. He left gaps where he predicted that new elements would be discovered. Later, his predictions proved correct.
  18. Curie
    A husband and wife team who discovered two of the missing elements, which they named radium and polonium. The elements were found in a mineral called pitchblende that released a powerful form of energy. Marie Curie gave this energy the name radioactivity. They won the Noble Prize for physics for their work on radioactivity. Marie Curie later won the Noble Prize for chemistry for the discovery of radium and polonium.
  19. Freud
    Believed that the unconscious mind drives how people think and act. Unconscious forces such as suppressed memories, desires, and impulses shape behavior. He founded a type of therapy called psychoanalysis to deal with psychological conflicts created by these forces.
  20. Pavlov
    Believed that human actions were often unconscious reactions to experiences and could be changed by training.
  21. Dalton
    Theorized that all matter is made of tiny particles called atoms. Elements contain only one kind of atom. Compounds, on the other hand, contain more than one kind of atom.
  22. Industrial Revolution
    The greatly increased output of machine-made goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.
  23. Enclosure
    Large fields in which landowners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields.
  24. Crop rotation
    The system of growing different crops in a field each year to preserve the fertility of the land.
  25. Factories
    A large building in which machinery is used to manufacture goods.
  26. Entrepreneur
    A person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
  27. Urbanization
    The growth of cities and the movement of people to cities.
  28. Middle Class
    A social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, businesspeople, and wealthy farmers.
  29. Working class
    Laborers who saw little improvement in their living and working conditions.
  30. Laissez faire
    The economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference. This policy favors a free market unregulated by the government.
  31. Utopian
    The perfect living place. Robert Owen liked the idea of a utopia. He was shocked by the misery and poverty of the working class and improved the working conditions for his employees. He built houses to rent at low rates. He prohibited children under ten from working on the mills and providing free schooling. He traveled to the U.S. and founded a community called New Harmony, which was meant to be a utopia.
  32. Capitalism
    An economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
  33. Utilitarianism
    The theory that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
  34. Socialism
    The factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
  35. Communism
    A form of complete socialism in which the means of production – all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses – would be owned by the people.
  36. Union
    Workers joined together in voluntary labor associations to press for reforms.
  37. Strike
    The refusal to work. This right was given to union members if factory owners refused these demands.
  38. Communism Manifesto
    A pamphlet created by Marx and Engels. It produced a few short-term results. Only after the turn of the century did the pamphlet produce explosive results. In the 1900s, Marxism inspired revolutionaries who adapted Marx’s beliefs to their own specific situations and needs.
  39. Assembly line
    In a factory, an arrangement in which a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in its manufacture.
  40. Mass Culture
    The production of works of art and entertainment designed to appeal to a large audience
  41. Why the Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain.

    Great Britain had a large population of workers, and also had extensive natural resources. Industrialization required such resources. In addition, Britain had an expanding economy to support industrialization. Britain also had a highly developed banking system to contribute to the country’s industrialization. People were encouraged by the availability of bank loans to invest in new machinery and expand their operations. Moreover, none of the wars they took part in occurred on British soil. Their military successes gave the British a positive attitude. Parliament also passed laws to help encourage and protect business ventures. Other countries had some of these advantages. However, Britain had all of the factors of production. Factors of production are the resources needed to produce goods and services that the Industrial Revolution required. They included land, labor and wealth.

  42. In what industry the I.R. began in and why?
    The Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry. It began in the textile industry because bulky, expensive machines started being built for cotton spinning. These machines were too large to use in the home, so they were placed in factories.
  43. What were the 3 improvements in transportation?
    The three improvements were the steam engine, boats, and the car, along with improved roads. Watt figured out a way to make the steam engine work faster and more efficiently while burning less fuel. Steam could also propel boats. The first steamboat was created and soon made its first successful trip.. Later it ferried passengers up and down New York’s Hudson River. Water transportation improved with the creation of a network of canals, or human-made waterways. The automobile was also created. Ford created cars and used an assembly line to do so. Eventually, the amount of time it took to make a car went from 12.5 to 1.5 hours. And with that, the price fell from $850 to $350 over time. British roads improved, too. On the bottom was a layer of large stones for drainage. On the top was a smoothed layer of crushed rock. Now, even in rainy weather heavy wagons could travel over the new road without sinking in mud.
  44. Why did the railroads revolutionize life in Britain?
    Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products. The railroad boom also created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners. Additionally, the railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities. Finally, by making travel easier, railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs. Likewise, railroads lured city dwellers to resorts in the countryside.
  45. Positive effects of the I.R.
    • Advances in communication – telephone
    • Advances in transportation – steamboat, trains
    • Advances in production – factories, assembly line
    • Medical and sanitation discoveries
    • Population explosion
    • New social structure
    • Changing roles for women
  46. Negatives affects of the I.R.
    • Pollution
    • Sudden, large movement of people to cities – unclean, unhealthy conditions
  47. Where the I.R. spread in Europe.
    Belgium led Europe in adopting Britain’s new technology. Germany also began to copy the British model. Germany imported British equipment and engineers. In the rest of Europe, industrialization proceeded by region rather than by country. For example, Bohemia developed a spinning industry. In France, sustained industrial growth occurred after 1830. French industrialization was more measured and controlled than in other countries because the agricultural economy remained strong. As a result, France avoided the great social and economic problems caused by industrialization. For a variety of reasons, many European countries did not industrialize.
  48. Impact of industrialization.
    The Industrial Revolution shifted the world balance of power. It increased competition between industrialized nations and poverty in less-developed nations. Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries, even while it strengthened their economic ties. To keep factories running and workers fed, industrialized countries required a steady supply of raw materials from less-developed lands. In turn, industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products. Imperialism was born out of the cycle of industrialization, the need for resources to supply the factories of Europe, and the development of new markets around the world. Industrialization gave Europe tremendous economic power. Industrialization revolutionized every aspect of society, from daily life to life expectancy. The development of a middle class created great opportunities for education and democratic participation. Great democratic participation, in turn, fueled a powerful movement for social reform
  49. Difference between communism and capitalism and socialism.
    Capitalism is an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit. In socialism, the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Communism is a form of complete socialism in which the means of production – all land, mines, factories, railroads, and businesses – would be owned by the people. All goods and services would be shared equally.
  50. The reforms that developed during the I.R.
    The abolition of slavery occurred in Britain. In the U.S., the enslavement of African people finally ended in 1865. The movement for women’s rights also began in the U.S. Free public schooling also became available in Western Europe. Reforms were also sought for in prisons to provide prisoners with the means to lead to useful lives upon release.
  51. The breakthroughs in technology and science and how they affected life at this time.
    During this time, the light bulb, telephone, radio, and affordable automobiles were all made available. All of these inventions helped make life easier. Inventions such as the telephone quickly became an essential of modern life. New ideas in science also emerged during this time. People were also discovering more about bacteria. This led to a British surgeon thinking that germs might explain why half of surgical patients died of infections. He ordered that his surgical wards be kept spotlessly clean. He insisted that wounds be washed in antiseptics. As a result, 85 percent of his patients survived. The theory of evolution also developed during this time. Mendel discovered that there is a pattern to the way that certain traits are inherited. This work began the science of genetics.
Card Set
World Civ Industrial Revolution
World Civ Industrial Revolution