Certified Sommelier - Beer Sake & Spirits.txt

  1. State the ingredients allowed in the Bavarian Purity Law of 1516 (Rheinhetsgebot)
    • Water
    • Barley malt (germinated barley)
    • Yeast
    • Hops (Humulus lupulus)
  2. Name the 2 main categories of beer
    • Ales: top-fermenting yeasts, warm with fast fermentation
    • Lagers: bottom-fermenting yeasts with cool, slow fermentation
    • Steam Beer: bottom-fermenting yeast with warm, fast fermentation
  3. Name 2 styles of beer within each of the 2 main beer categories
    • Ales: Pale Ale (IPA), Bitters (ESB), Porters, Stouts, Wheat or Weisse
    • Lagers: Pilsner, Bock (strong), Marzen ("Mayrt-zen")
  4. State the steps of beer production
    • 1 (HARVEST): Harvest barley
    • 2 (GERMINATION): Malt is made by steeping barley in water for 48-72 hours, until it begins to germinate. Sprouting produces the enzyme amylase which converts starch into maltose and dextrin.
    • 3 (KILN): The "green malt" is dryed by hot air in a kiln to stop germination and then possibly toasted
    • 4 (GRIND): The malt is then "cracked" in a mill, producing grist
    • 5 (STEEP): "Steep in warm water to extract sugar, creating wort."
    • The grist is combined with hot water in a mash tun, creating wort. Additional sugar and flavor extracted via sparging (rinsing the spent grains with water) is added to the wort liquid. Hops are added and the wort is boiled for an hour to stablize and sterilize the brew.
    • 6 (YEAST): add ("pitch") cultured yeast after wort is cooled. Saccharomyces cerevisae is added for ales; Saccharomyces carlsbergensis is added for lagers.
    • 8 (FILTER): Filter, pasteurize and condition
    • Note: Home brewers often buy extract (dry or syrup) so they just add water to create wort
  5. State the production difference between a blond ale, amber and porter
    • Light malt and crystal malts are used for light ales, bitters and lagers
    • Chocolate and black malt is used for mild ales and stouts
  6. What is fermentation?
    • Sugar + yeast = Alcohol + CO2
    • For wine, the grape juice has sugar and water
    • For beer, must germinate the barley to get sugar and add water
  7. Define hops
    The flower cone of a harbaceous climbing plant used in the production of beer to impart bitterness and flavor, and as a preservative.
  8. Name the premium sake quality levels
    • Name: min % rice polished away / no added alc / brewers alcohol added
    • Honjozo: distilled alcohol added
    • Junmai: 30% / Junmai-shu / Honjozo-shu
    • Gingo: 40% / Junmai Gingo / Ginjo-shu Honjozo
    • Daiginjo: 50% / Junmai Daigingo / Daiginjo-shu Honjozo
    • Namazake: unpasteurized; all of the above styles can be Namazake
  9. State the Japanese term for the Sake fermentation starter mold
    Koji: aspergillus oryzae
  10. State the steps of sake production
    • 1 (STEAM): Rice is washed and steam cooked
    • 2 (YEAST/KOJI): Rice is mixed with yeast and koji
    • 3 (FERMENATION): ferment in large tank (Shikomi); more rice, koji, water added in 3 batches
    • 4 (FILTER): Sit 18-32 days then press, filter (often though cloth bags), and blend
  11. Define Alembic
    • Copper Pot Still
    • Slower and gentler than continuous still
    • Invented by Arabs for perfume
    • aka Coffey Still and Patent Still
    • Cognac uses Charentais stills
  12. Name some unpasteurized beer styles
    • Lambic: wild yeast, very sour, improves with age
    • Trappiste Ale: unfiltered, made by monks
    • Cask/Bottle Conditioned: unfiltered
  13. Name the 4 main Scotch regions
    • Highland including Speyside, Perthshire, Northern, and Islands
    • Islay
    • Campletown
    • Lowland
  14. Define peat
    • Partially carbonized vegetal matter (plants on their way to becoming rock)
    • Not peat moss
  15. Define Bourbon
    • Originally made in Kentucky, min 51% corn but most 70%; pot stilled and aged 2 years in charred white American oak
    • Tennessee Whiskey is Bourbon that is filtered through sugar maple charcoal ("Lincoln County Method")
  16. Name the best Cognac, Armagnac & Calvados sub-regions
    • Cognac: Grand Champagne (best, chalky soil), Petite Champagne, (Fine Champagne is Petite + > 50% Grand), Borderies, Fins Bois, Bons Bois, Bois Ordinaires
    • Armagnac: Bas Armagnac (best, sandy soil), Haut Armagnac, Tenereze
    • Calvados: Pays d'Auge (best, double pot still), Domfrontais (continuous still, min 30% pears), Calvados (continuous still)
  17. State the main grapes of Cognac and Armagnac
    Ugni Blanc (St-Emilion), Colombard, Folle Blanche (Picpoul)
  18. State the aging terms for Cognac
    • VS: >2 years in wood; aka Three Star
    • VSOP: >4 years; aka VO, Reserve, Five Star
    • XO: >6 years; aka Antique, Cordon Bleu, Centeur
  19. State the aging terms for Armagnac
    • Three Star: >2 year
    • VSOP: >5 years
    • XO: >6 years
    • Hor d'age: 10 years
  20. Describe how Single Malt Whisky is made
    • Double distilled in copper pot stills and flavored with peat
    • Keep heart (bonne chauffe) and throw out heads (tete) and tails (queue)
    • Age in used oak barrels (old Bourbon, Sherry, Port, Madeira barrels)
    • Age indicates the average age
  21. Describe how Irish Whiskey is made
    • Irish Whiskey: Triple distilled, not flavored with peat
    • Scotch and Cognac: Double distilled
  22. Name 3 classic cocktails & their base spirit
    • Old-Fashioned: whiskey, syrup, bitters
    • Manhattan: whiskey, angostura, sweet red vermouth, Marashino cherry [Rob Roy - Scotch]
    • Martini: gin, dry vermouth, olive/lemon [Gibson - onion pearl]
    • Sidecar: cognac or armagnac, cointreau or triple sec, lemon juice
    • Daiquiri: Cuban rum, simple syrup and lime juice, [Wiskey sour - bourbon]
    • Jack Rose: apple jack, lime juice, sugar, mint and sparkling water [Mojito - sugar and mint]
    • Cosmopolitan: vodka, cranberry juice, triple sec, lime juice
    • Gimlet: gin, lime juice
  23. State the main flavoring ingredient of Gin
    • Juniper
    • Flavored vodka, first produced in Scotland lowlands
    • Styles: London Dry, Dutch Genever
  24. State the source of sugar for the best Tequila
    Blue Agave
  25. State the source of sugar for rum
    Sugar Cane
  26. State the minimum sugar level for liqueur
    2.5% sugar by volume
  27. Name any beverage suitable as an aperitif & why
    light, crisp, and sour makes you hungry
  28. Name any beverage suitable as an digestive & why
    oils from bark, seeds, etc. that aid digestion
  29. Name a brandy other than Cognac, Armagnac & Calvados
    • Marc: distilled fermented "wine leftovers" (grape pips and skins)
    • Grappa: Italian Marc
    • Asbach: produced in Germany from French wine
  30. Match the liqueur to the most appropriate flavor.
    • Midori: Melon
    • Kummel: Caraway Seed
    • Cynar: Artichoke
    • Chambord: Raspberry
    • Strega: Saffron
    • Tia Maria: Coffee
    • Pernod: Anise
  31. Name some sake terms
    • Nigori: milky, unfiltered sake, usually sweet
    • Shizuki: free run
    • Kimoto: tart sake
    • Taruzake: aged in cypress casks (smells of cracked black pepper)
    • Genshu: undiluted
  32. Name the sweetness scale for sake
    • Nihonshu-do: Sake Meter Value (SMV)
    • -5 to +10: sweeter to drier
  33. Name 3 liqueurs, their base & country of origin
    • liqueurs - Sweetened flavored spirits
    • Flavor extracted by infusion, percolation, or distillation
    • Advocaat (Holland, egg)
    • Amaretto (Italy, apricot)
    • Benedictine (France, DOM = Deo Optimo Maximo)
    • Chartreuse (France, green=55%, yellow=40%, VEP=Viellissement Exceptionnellement Prolonge)
    • Cherry Heering (Denmark, cherry)
    • Pisang Ambon (Holland, banana)
    • Midori (Japan, melon)
    • Tamara (Israel, dates)
    • Malibu (Barbados, coconut)
    • Sloe Gin (England, sloe berries)
    • Limoncello (Italy, lemon)
    • Creme de Cassis (France, blackcurrant)
    • Frangelico (Italy, Hazelnut)
    • Amaretto (Italy, Apricot and Almond)
Card Set
Certified Sommelier - Beer Sake & Spirits.txt
Beer sake spirits