DPT 721 Advanced Topics

  1. Motor Control
    • Control and organization of processses underlying motor behavior
    • (millisecond time frame)
  2. Motor Learning
    • Acquisition of skill thru practice and experience
    • (Hours, days, weeks time frame)
  3. Factors within individual that constrain movement
    Action, Percetption, Cognition
  4. Tasks
    Stability, Mobility, Manipulation of objects
  5. Environmental Concerns
    Regulatory and Nonregulatory
  6. Regulatory Factor
    something that a movement MUST conform to in order to carry out the movement effectively and efficently (i.e. size, shape, weight)
  7. Non-Regulatory Factor
    Something that may affect performance but movement doesn't have to conform to it. (i.e. background noise or presence of other distractions)
  8. Why is knowing theory so important?
    It helps us to interpret actions or behaviors of patients, then apply strategies to help return them to function.
  9. Reflex Theory
    Complex movement behaviors are explained by combined actions of individual reflexes chained together
  10. Limitations to Reflex Theory
    • Doesn't allow for behavior of movment if stimulus is an intrinsic factor. In other words, all movement must be stimulated from an outside sensory modality.
    • There is no explanation for differences in response to stimuli or rapid movements.
  11. Reflex Theory: Clinical Implications
    Use of reflexes and reflex patterns to facilitate wanted movement or inhibiting those same pathways to control unwanted movement.
  12. Hierarchical Theory
    Top down control- higher levels of CNS exert control over lower levels.

    The lower the input from above the more strong the reflex pathway
  13. Hierarchical Theory: Limitations
    Doesn't explain how a bottom up strategy works in the body (e.g. crossed extention reflex when you step on a tack)
  14. Hierarchical Theory: clinical implications
    Helps to determine the level of lesion and expected recovery a patient might achieve.
  15. Cortex
    Equilibrium reactions
  16. Midbrain
    Righting reactions (head verticle and protective responses)
  17. Spinal cord
    Primitive Reflexes
  18. Motor Programming Theory
    Use of CPGs to facilitate repetitive movements or higher level programs to represent movements globally rather than in one part only. (i.e. writing right or left handed)
  19. Motor Programming Theory: Limitations
    CPGs were not intended to replace sensory input as an influencing factor of movement

    Doesn't explain how other factors influence movement
  20. Motor Programming: Clinical implications
    • Broadens prospective on dysfunction in the motor behavior.
    • Allows for task specific movement patterns
  21. Systems Theory
    Whole system is analyzed for problems to asses dysfunction in motor behavior
  22. Systems Theory: Limitations
    • Many degrees of freedom to control
    • Makes for a very long evaluation which led to the development of the HOAC
  23. Dynamic Systems Theory
    • System is:
    • Self-organized
    • have nonlinear properties
    • influenced by control parameters
    • Variable
  24. Nonlinearity
    output is not proportional to the input
  25. Control parameters
    variable that regulates change in the behavior of the entire system
  26. Variability
    small amounts of variability indicates a highly stable behavior
  27. Dynamic Systems Theory: Limitations
    • Gives less importance to the CNS than it deserves
    • complex application in the clinic
  28. Dynamic Systems Theory: Clinical implications
    predicts motor behavior better than other theories because it incorporates the other body systems in addition to the CNS.

    Variablility can indicate readiness to learn or need for training to decrease errors.
  29. Ecologic Theory
    • Explains the role environment plays on motor behavior
    • Motor control evolved so that animals could cope with their environment
  30. Ecologic Theory: Limitations
    Doesn't aknowledge the CNS in motor behavior
  31. Ecologic Theory: Clinical Implications
    • There are more than one correct solution to solving the problem
    • Explore multiple ways that a task can be done in the environment so that the patient can easily adapt to different surroundings.
  32. Neurofacilitation approaches: underlying assumptions
    Functional skills will automatically return once abnormal patterns are inhibited and normal patterns are facilitated

    Repetition of normal patterns will automatically transfer to functional tasks
  33. Neurofacilitation appproaches: Clinical implications
    • Exam should focus on the presence of normal reflexes
    • Intervention should focus on modifying reflexes to facilitate movement
    • Stimulating sensory information suggests modifying CNS thought the stimulation
  34. Task-oriented approach
    • Normal movement emerges as interaction among many different systems
    • Each contributing different aspects of control
    • movement organized around behavioral goal
    • Constrained by environment
    • Sensation is essential to predictive and adaptive control of movement, not just stimulus for a resoponse
  35. Task-oriented approach: clinical implications
    • Work for identifiable functional tasks
    • Work with the task in different environments
    • Solve the problem in multiple ways
  36. Reflex Theory: People
  37. Hierarchical Theory: People
  38. Systems Theory: People
    • Bernstein
    • Latash
  39. Dynamic Systems Theory: People
    • Thelen
    • Kamm
    • Kelso
  40. Ecologic Theory: People
Card Set
DPT 721 Advanced Topics
DPT 721