Vocal Performance

  1. Articulation
    (def) the positioning of the articulators in order to create the individual sounds of any given language.
  2. Articulators
    jaw, lips, tongue, teeth, alveoli, palate, and velum
  3. Assimilation
    Changes, modifications, or omissions in sounds as a result of placement in connected speech, often considered to be negative.
  4. Bernoulli Effect
    • "as velocity increases, pressure decreases"
    • the concept of air flowing through your vocal cords. there is a build up of pressure when your vocal cords are closed, and then once they open the air rushes out until the pressure is low enough for them to close again. and the process starts over.
  5. Voice (good qualities)
    A good voice is clear, resonant, stable, well supported by adequate breath control. It is at a pitch level that is appropriate to the speaker and the message. Rate of speech is such that messages are clearly understood. A good voice has variety.
  6. Voice (def)
    Vocal fold vibration. Used in reference to consonants and vowels.
  7. Diction
    • producing both sounds and ideas clearly.
    • synonyms for diction are articulation (producing individual sounds clearly) and enunciation (producing linked sounds clearly and distinctly as in words)
  8. Paralinguistics
    How we use certain factors such as pitch, loudness, rate, and quality to communicate messages beyond words.

    (saying "please pass the salt" as opposed to "yo! salt!")
  9. 5 processes required to improve how you speak
    • ("speech as a learned process and advocacy for improvement")
    • motivation
    • awareness
    • instruction
    • repetition
    • time
  10. Influences on your voice and speech
    • Friends (culture, society, etc)
    • physicality
    • psychology
    • environment
  11. 6 vocal mechanisms
    • pitch
    • loudness
    • rate
    • quality
    • language
    • articulation of vowels and consonants
  12. "The Communication Process"
    the cycle of communication involves encoding, transferring, decoding, and feedback.

    each person brings to the act of communication factors: gender, culture, education, religion, and physical & psychological components
  13. Berlitz Language School
    • Time: late 1800's
    • Maximillian Berlitz
    • if you immerse yourself in what your are trying to learn, you learn it better and quicker.
  14. Breathing (def)
    the process of inhaling and exhaling air and, in this context, utilizing that air for producing voice.
  15. Phonation (def)
    The vibration of the vocal folds housed within the larynx
  16. Resonation (def)
    The amplification of vocalized sound that occurs in the pharynx, nasal cavities, and oral cavity.
  17. 4 parts of the voice production system
    • breathing
    • phonation
    • resonation
    • articulation
  18. "Voice in an overlaid process"
    • The act of voice production is an overlaid process because the structures utilized are employed in basic life-sustaining functions.
    • voice generation and support is a secondary function.
    • (lungs=breathing, teeth, tongue, & palate=biting and chewing food)
  19. Diaphragm
    • a dome-shaped muscle situated just under the lungs.
    • you have no direct control over the diaphragm
  20. Larynx
    • "voice box"
    • sits on top of the cartilage rings that form the trachea (windpipe)
  21. Thyroid Cartilage
    • "adam's apple"
    • most prominent part of the larynx. serves as the larynx's shield.
    • cartilage that wraps around the larynx
  22. epiglottis
    a tongue-shaped flap of cartilage that projects above and behind the larynx and is responsible primarily for channeling food or other matter to the esophagus (instead of trachea)
  23. Esophagus
    • has no function in the production of voice.
    • it is primarily use din the digestive process.
  24. Vocal folds
    • thin sheets of muscular tissue
    • attached in the front of the larynx to the thyroid cartilage and attached in the back to two small arytenoids
  25. Glottis
    the space between the vocal folds
  26. The majority of resonation occurs in what 3 cavities?
    • pharyngeal cavity
    • oral cavity
    • nasal cavity
  27. Velum
    • the projection at the back of the soft palate (the tip of which is the uvula)
    • it acts as a valve directing sound in one direction or the other (mouth or nose)
  28. Which resonating cavity is the most flexible cavity?
    Oral cavity
  29. Phonemes
    an individual sound of any given language
  30. 3 factors that make listening to yourself a challenge
    • your ears are situated behind your voice
    • your bones will reverberate with the sounds you make
    • you are busy processing messages as you speak
  31. Laryngitis
    Inflammation of the vocal folds may be caused by illnesses such as a cold or flue and may result in hoarseness or even an inability to produce vocal sounds. Screaming or shouting mary cause laryngitis.
  32. Structures of breathing
    • inhalation
    • exhalation
    • muscles
    • diaphragm
  33. the process of phonation
    • larynx
    • glottis
    • epiglottis
    • vocal folds
    • arytenoids
  34. Resonance focus
    • for General American English, the center or focus of oral resonance is generally mid-mouth. lazy speech = rear mouth
    • good speech = little forward of mid focus
    • (9 positions of focus)
  35. The cavities of resonation (more detailed)
    pharynx, formant frequencies, oral cavity, velum, nasal passages, resonance focus
  36. Process of articulation
    tongue, lips, teeth, gums, hard palate, velum, lower jaw
  37. structure of the ear
    malleus, incus, stapes, tympanic membrane, cochlea, organ of corti
  38. relation between good speaking and controlled exhalations
    • good breath control enable you to use your vocal mechanism more efficiently.
    • amount of time spent on inhalation is shorter and exhaled air is utilized to produce and sustain voice over a longer period of time
  39. Why is it important to stay relaxed?
    an increase in tension will alter the sound quality of your voice.
  40. Resonation
    the process of amplifying or modifying the fundamental vibrated sound that originated in the larynx.
  41. Formant frequencies
    sound characteristics resulting from resonance
  42. Voiced vs voiceless
    • vibrated air is voiced
    • unvibrated air is voiceless
  43. Linguistics (def)
    The study of language
  44. Dialect (def)
    A regional variation of a language characterized by differences from the overall language in vocabulary, grammar, and phonetic choices.

  45. Language
    a series of sounds which, when produced in a particular order, evoke meaning.
  46. Word
    a significant series of sounds, when joined in a particular way, serve to symbolize something.
  47. Linguist
    persons who study language
  48. "language changes constantly"
    Language is in a constant state of flux because of the introduction of new words and new ways of saying old words.

    (principle I of language change and evolution)
  49. "survival is rooted in common speech"
    languages and sounds survive, but survival is rooted in common speech. survival may depend on isolation.

    (principle II of language change and evolution)
  50. "Substantive change usually takes time"
    • generally it takes hundreds of years for the sound values in a language to change or be lost.
    • conditions for change include: (1) the conquering of one linguistic group by another, as in war, and the imposition of its language is upon that conquered people; (2) the fading away of words, sounds, or stresses of a given language because people stop using them; or (3) the altering of the grammar of a language in such a way as to cause sound to be lost.
  51. Pitch (def)
    • the perception of frequency, which defines the number of vibrations of a sound wave.
    • it is perceived as high or low.
  52. Inflection (def)
    • an upward or downward change in pitch.
    • sometimes this occurs on a single vocalization, and sometimes there is a slight break in vocalization.
  53. Intonation (def)
    the overall pitch movement or pattern that characterizes a language or a person's speech
  54. Variety
    the employment of upward and downward pitch in order to avoid monotone or narrow pitch range.
  55. Frequency
    • the physical component of pitch
    • defines the number of vibrations or cycles a sound wave makes per second (cps)
  56. T or F:
    Pitch and "key" is the same thing
  57. Habitual pitch
    • a given pitch level that you adjust to
    • the level at which you most frequently initiate vocalization.
  58. Optimum pitch
    the level [of vocalization] that is the best for your particular vocal structure and the one that projects well.
  59. Pitch change is called...?
  60. Rising Inflection
    • (or Upward inflection)
    • when you move from a lower pitch to a higher pitch on a continuous vocalization.
  61. Falling inflection
    • (or downward inflection)
    • when you move from a higher pitch to a lower pitch level on a continuous vocalization
  62. Circumflex infleciton
    both the upward and downward pitch inflection used on a single vocalization

    (used for excited or overly emotional)
  63. step inflection
    pitch change, either upward or downward, characterized by a break in vocalization (from word to word)
  64. extralinguistics
    • features that are those that indicate to others the condition of the anatomical structure.
    • (ex: if you are extremely tired, your pitch may change)
  65. Intonation
    • all languages are characterized by the music of rising and falling inflection.
    • most languages feature distinctive intonational patters.
  66. loudness (def)
    • refers to the degree of intensity of vocal sound.
    • amplitude is its physical component, used interchangeably with volume.
  67. Projection (def)
    the ability to support the voice in order to place vocal sound to appropriate points or distances.
  68. stress (def)
    • (with voice)
    • (1) the emphasis on a given syllable or word

    (2) as in strain or tension due to too much intensity
  69. Volume
    volume (or loudness) is the perceived amplitude of a sound
  70. it takes at least what % increase in loudness for a listener to perceive the change??
    5% increase
  71. loudness vs. pitch
    your ability to perceive the loudness level is directly related to the pitch level (or frequency) of a sound
  72. 2 factors contributing to your ability to hear the sound of another person's voice
    • (1) the acoustical properties of the room you are in
    • (2) the decibel level of nearby sounds.
  73. loudness level of the human voice is determined by what factors? (3)
    • force
    • support
    • amplification
  74. Syllabic stress
    • changes in loudness levels that help convey meaning and making ourselves heard.
    • these changes identify the most important syllable in a polysyllabic word or the relationship of that word to the rest of the sentence (in monosyllabic words).
  75. what factors are vital to adequate projection?
    breath support, a relaxed pharyngeal cavity, and open mouth
  76. 4 spaces within interaction occurs
    • intimate space (within inches)
    • personal space (arm's length)
    • social space (around ten feet)
    • public space (beyond ten to twelve feet)
  77. General Stress Rule -- Nouns
    nouns receive stress on the first syllable of two syllable words
  78. General Stress Rule -- Verbs
    verbs may receive stress on the second syllable of two syllable words
  79. spatial parameters vs loudness
    we alter the loudness levels of our voices given these spatial parameters (the 4 spaces defined by Edward Hall)
  80. Duration (def)
    the time spent producing both the sounds and silences of a language
  81. Rate (def)
    the number of words per minute one speaks
  82. Pause (def)
    a break in speech characterized by no sound.
  83. Speech phrasing (def)
    forming a group of spoken words that constitutes a meaningful unit and is surrounded by pauses.
  84. Syllabic stress (def)
    the emphasis on a given syllable.
  85. To improve your own rate os speech, pay attention to:
    • actual speaking or oral reading rates
    • use of silence or the pause
    • integration of these into speech phrasing
    • rate variety
  86. general word per minute guidelines (for unemotional material)
    • too slow = 110 to 130 wpm
    • excellent rate = 140 to 175 wpm
    • too fast = 180 to 220 wpm
  87. The pause is a ....
    • point that corresponds to the punctuation marks of its grammar
    • a vocal indicator of meaning or speaking style and is related to situations, individuals, and cultures.
  88. speech phrasing involves...
    the rhythms of a language and the amount of time, or duration, spent on certain sounds in the language.
  89. 4 major factors determine the duration we assign to sound:
    • grammatical structure
    • physical process of articulation
    • meaning of the message
    • mood or emotional state of speaker or message
  90. speaking vs. reading rates
    speaking rates are faster than reading rates
  91. two steps to slow yourself down
    • learn to elongate appropriate sounds
    • utilize appropriately placed pauses
  92. Vocal nodes (def)
    irregular growths on the vocal folds caused by irritation and causing the voice to sound coarse or raspy.
  93. Voice (vs. voicelessness)
    • vocal fold vibration
    • used in reference to consonants and vowels
  94. voicelessness (vs voice)
    used in reference to consonants; lack of vocal fold vibration.
  95. Breathiness (def)
    a vocal quality characterized by excessive release of air during speech.
  96. Diaphragmatic breathing (abdominal breathing, belly breathing, deep breathing or costal breathing)
    • is the act of breathing deep into one's lungs by flexing one's diaphragm rather than breathing shallowly by flexing one's rib cage.
    • This deep breathing is marked by expansion of the stomach (abdomen) rather than the chest when breathing.
    • It is generally considered a healthier and fuller way to ingest oxygen[1], and is often used as a therapy for hyperventilation and anxiety disorders.
Card Set
Vocal Performance
Midterm test