The process by which dissolves gases are exchanged between the blood capillaries and the cells of the body (not in the lungs) is known as..
internal respiration (exchange of gases from the blood to the cells)
Calcitonin is released because of...
high blood Ca+ levels
what hormone stimulates the a cell's metabolic rate?
Thyroid hormones T3 and/or T4
hyperventilation results in which of the following situations?
Which of the following is not associated with a chemical signal binding to a membrane receptor?
List the hormones that are involved in regulating the release of T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland?
thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroid releasing hormone and T3 and T4 (negative feedback)
The primary regulator of respiratory rates under normal conditions is
Which of the following is not a result of the anterior pituitary gland hyper-secreting growth hormone?
Your mother wants to know that muscles contract during relaxed exhalation?
Tricky question, no muscles contract but
1. Smooth muscle- relaxation and recoil
2. Connective tissue- elastic bands around the alveolar
3. surface tension- the hydrogen bonds that H2O wants to create
Where specifically is the rhythmicity center for respiration located?
The medulla Oblongata in the brainstem
What is the function for the hormone ghrelin?
To make you feel hungary
What intracellular signal is produced when adenylate cyclase is activated?
How are paracrine and endocrine signaling mechanism different?
Paracrine is when a cell produces a signal and just sends it to neighboring cells
Endocrine is when a cell produces a signal and releases it in the blood stream.
Giantism is caused by (be very specific)...
an extreme amount of human growth hormone (HGH) released from the anterior pituitary gland, being released before the epiphyseal plates are sealed.
What gas law is used to describe why pulmonary ventilation takes place?
Boyles Law (P=1/V)
What hormone is released if the blood Ca+ levels are below normal?
What 2 factors can dramatically change the alveolar levels of PO2?
2. Respiration rates
Name the cells that produce calcitronin.
C-Cells in the thyroid
What protein is responsible for carrying both O2 and CO2 in the blood?
Hemoglobin (heme more specifically)
List the different ways that CO2 is transported and what percentage of CO2 is transported in that way.
23% is found in blood protein (hemoglobin)
70% is found in the form of bicarbonate ions
7% is dissolve in the plasma
The gas law that best describes why you get more N2 into your blood during a deep dive is...
List the 3 different types of stimuli that causes (triggers) the release or inhibition of a hormone and provide an example of the cause (stimulus) and a hormone that is released in response for each of the different ways.
1. Hormones that release hormones- Example TSH releases ACTH Hormone
2. Blood concentrations release a hormone- example high blood glucose releases insulin (beta cells of the pancreas).
3. Neurons release hormones- example- when your scared from a sound then your sympathetic nervous system tells your medulla of the adrenal gland to release epinephrine.
CO2 is more dissolvable in water then O2. To get the same amount of O2 to dissolve in plasma as C02, you would have to...
Name the 2 types of chemoreceptors involved in regulating respiration and identify what they are each primarily monitor.
1. Central chemoreceptor- monitors the concentration of H+
2. Peripheral chemoreceptors- monitors the levels of O2 in the blood.
How is it possible to for a fetus to gain O2 from the mothers blood supply?
Diffusion (the baby has lower concentrations of O2 then the mother.
The baby has a higher affinity for oxygen because they have Gamma alpha protein while the mother just has Alpha Beta which is a lower affinity.
List the 2 gonadotrophin hormones
FSH (follicle stimulating) and LH (lutinizing hormone)
Which of the following statements is not true about the hypothalamus's control of hormones release?
As the space shuttle lifts off and a astronaut is lifted into the earths orbit, what is the first change to take place in response to the decrease in cabin pressure? assume they aren't wearing their suites.
List the different groups of hormones released from the cortex of the adrenal gland.
1. Glucocorticoids- Cortisol
2. mineralocorticoids- Aldosterone (K+ out Na+ in)
The partial pressure of CO2 in the blood just leaving the lungs is..
what are the different organs in the body that parathyroid hormones will affect for each organ what does the PTH cause to happen?
Bone- Increases osteoclast activities (breaks down bone)
Small intestines- increase absorption of dietary Ca+
Kidneys- retain more Ca+ then normal (less likely to end up excreted in urine.)
At sea level what determines the venous PCO2 in a normal healthy person?
The metabolic activities
What hormone is released from the heart in response to increased blood volume and identify what other hormones are affected by this hormone?
ANP is released from the atrium when it's stretched more then normal. It inhibits ADH and Aldosterone.
what hormone from the pituitary gland is involved in regulating urine production
The most influential item listed below that affects respiration rates is...
List 3 different examples of intracellular signals that could be triggered in response to a hormone binding to a receptor on a cell membrane
IP3, DAG and cAMP
Besides being bound to hemoglobin name 2 other ways CO2 is transported in the blood.
dissolved in the plasma and as a bicarbonate ion
Boyle's law is directly associated with
Your puppy wants to know how it is possible that CO2 is transported in the form of a bicarbonate ion.
When CO2 meets up with water it combines and hormone H2CO3 this gets broken to form HCO3- and H+
Name the different chemoreceptors involved in regulating respiration and their locations and the gases they each primarily monitor
Central chemoreceptor its in the medulla and it monitors H+ levels
Peripheral chemoreceptor is in the internal carotid and the arch of the aorta and it monitors O2 levels
Intracellular receptors bind with what type of hormone?
Name the hormone that says you are hungry (triggers hunger)
When an intercellular signal binds to a membrane bound receptor and triggers the production of cAMP what enzyme in the membrane is activated?
Hormones that control the function of the anterior pituitary gland are an example of a group hormones known as
neurons of the paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus produce...
ADH and oxytoxin
increases in altitude have what affect on PO2 values?
Lower PO2 values
You are in an airplane flying at 10 feet above the ground when the pilot increases the cabin pressure. In response to the increase in cabin pressure you would experiance an
List 3 different intracellular signals that can be released in response to an intercellular signal
Ca+ levels, cAMP, IP3, DAG
The precursor for steroid hormone production is a molecule...
Name the 2 groups of nuclei in the pons that causes changes in respiration rates.
apneustic and pheunmotaxic
There is always a little ADH being released into general circulation, however lower than normal levels of ADH in the blood would lead to (cause)...
Physiology final- Respiratory and endocrine
part of the final that has to do with respiratory and endocrine!