1. High prevalence of __ deficits in hospitalized patients
  2. __ % of hospitalized patients suffer from some degree of malnutrition (depending on disease and population)
    15 - 50
  3. Loss of weight, appetite, muscle atrophy, and weakness in someone not trying to lose weight, usu. signifies an underlying disease
  4. acute visceral protein depletion (chronic protein intake insufficiency), usually affects young children, edema, pigmentation, pot belly
  5. Simple starvation (chronic caloric intake insufficiency)loss of lean body mass, fat, and visceral proteins
  6. 40% in liver (rapidly depleted)
    Glycogen stores
  7. 60% in muscle
    Glycogen stores
  8. Obligatory gluconeogenesis, Protein catabolism, Increased nitrogen loss, Unresponsive to glucose administration, Magnitude of loss proportional to injury
    Adrenergic/Corticoid phase of Stressed Starvation (Surgery, Trauma)
  9. __ common finding with deficiencies in niacin, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12
    peripheral neuropathy
  10. Represents the critical cellular mass necessary for cellular structure as well as function
    lean body mass
  11. Represents 40% of total body weight
    lean body mass
  12. Depletion is severe insult and defines patient morbidity and mortality
    lean body mass
  13. 60% skeletal muscle
    lean body cell mass
  14. 20% red blood cells and connective tissue
    lean body cell mass
  15. 20% cell mass
    lean body cell mass
  16. Utilized for clinical determination of total body fat and skeletal muscle store. Simple, inexpensive, non-invasive technique
    Anthropometric measures
  17. __% of the total body protein is contained in skeletal muscle
  18. this is major site of protein catabolism during starvation and/or illness
    skeletal muscle
  19. Most widely used biochemical marker of muscle mass
    24-hr urine creatinine
  20. Creatinine is degradation product of creatine,__
    an energy storage compound located in skeletal muscle
  21. Maintains plasma oncotic pressure and is a carrier for enzymes, drugs, hormones, etc.
    Serum albumin
  22. Serum albumin
    Serum albumin
  23. Carrier for iron. Limited use because level fluctuates with iron stores
    Serum transferrin
  24. Carrier for thyroxine and retinol-binding protein. Sensitive to acute changes in nutrient intake
    Serum prealbumin
  25. Resting energy expenditure calculated by using the __ equation
  26. Nitrogen Balance
    N intake - N loss
  27. Nitrogen Balance (N intake - N loss):If positive (goal +2 to +4), net state of __
  28. Nitrogen Balance (N intake - N loss): If negative, net state of __
  29. Nitrogen Intake (enteral and parenteral)(1 gm N/__ g Protein
  30. Estimates severity of lean body mass catabolism and quantifies severity of metabolic stress
    Catabolic Index (CI):
  31. In general, adults will require nutritional support if NPO for greater than __ days
  32. if the gut works
    use it
  33. contraindications to enteral nutrition
    gastroparesis, intestinal obstruction, ileus, high-output fistula, short bowel syndrome
  34. Used for conscious patients; preferred for short-term feeding (< 30 days)
    Nasoenteric Tube Feeding
  35. Nasogastric: adequate gastric emptying require; maintain gastric residuals < __% of total infusion over prior 4 hours
  36. Nasoenteric Tube Feeding: used in patients with high aspiration risk (neurological impairment; poor gastric motility)
  37. tube feeds cause
  38. in a patient with tube feeding and diarrhea check for __ before changing anything else
    C. dif
  39. Involves continuous infusion of hyperosmolar solution containing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and other necessary nutrients through an indwelling catheter inserted into the superior vena cava
    Total Parenteral Alimentation/Nutrition (TPN)
  40. Any patient who will not have functioning GI tract for __ days should be considered for TPN
  41. Principal indication for __ are found in seriously ill patients suffering from malnutrition, sepsis, or surgical or accidental trauma when use of the GI tract for feedings is not possible
    parenteral alimentation
  42. 1. Intravenous vitamin preparations should be added 2. Vitamin K and folate should be administered once a week 3. Vitamin B12 is given once a month intramuscularly
    Parenteral Alimentation
  43. May present as dry, scaly dermatitis and loss of hair - Syndrome may be prevented by periodic infusion of a fat emulsion equal to 4 - 5% of total calories
    Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency
  44. - Most frequent trace mineral deficiency is __, which presents as an eczematoid rash developing both diffusely and at intertriginous areas
Card Set
Nutrition cards made by previous students