Ecology- animals

  1. heterotrophs
    • major resource is consumption of other organisms
    • metabolize and excrete contents from what they eat

    • decomposers
    • parasites
    • grazers: eat part of organism, but doesnt die
    • predators
  2. plants as food
    plants high in C compared to N

    • cellulose in cell walls impossible to digest
    • ruminants have symbiotic relationship w/ bacteria which break down cellulose
    • chewing/cooking also

    herbivores: high in Carbon so it wastes it, needs the nitrogen
  3. animals as food
    plenty of N

    Carnivores are C limited and excretes N (due to muscle and chiton)
  4. consumers: specialists vs. generalists
    • specialist: consume only a single species for a few closely related
    • not a very balanced diet
    • use biosynthesis to get basic macromolecues they need (work)

    • generalists: wide variety of species (omnivores)
    • show strong preferences
    • dilemma- if you can eat everything, you need to decide to balance diet
  5. other resources
    • oxygen: aerobic respiration
    • lack of O2: aquatic, trapped, saturated soils, frozen
    • anoxia animals: hibernators (hypoxia), turtles and carp, clams and oyster, insects that can stand freezing

    • survive by having big fuel supply (survive on glycolysis)
    • tolerating acid buildup (buffering blood)
    • slower metabolic rate (lower need for ATP)
    • antioxidant protection (protect tissue from radicals that are created as O2 is available)

    • space and structures (impress ladies)
    • mineral nutrients
Card Set
Ecology- animals