Admin Test 2

  1. Decision Making Process
    a set of eight steps that includes identifying a problem, selecting a solution, and evaluating the effectiveness of the solution
  2. Problem
    a discrepancy between an existing and a desired state of affairs
  3. Decision criteria
    factors that are relevant in a decision
  4. decision implementation
    putting a decision into action; includes conveying the decision to the persons who will be affected by it and getting their commitment to it
  5. certainty
    implication that the outcome of every possible alternative is known
  6. Uncertainty
    A condition under which there is not full knowledge of the problem and reasonable probabilities for alternative outcomes cannot be determined
  7. Risk
    Probabilility that a particular outcome will result from a given decision
  8. Characteristics of a decision tree
    • based on traditional pro and con lists
    • presents possible options
    • for more complex problems
    • involves getting all pertinent information
  9. Three elements of Creative Potential
    • Expertise
    • Creative-thinking skills
    • Intrinsic task motivation
  10. Expertise
    understanding, abilities, knowledge, proficiencies, necessary in the field of creative endeavors
  11. Creative-thinking skills
    the personality characteristics associated with creativity, the ability to use analogies, as well as the talent to see the familiar in a different light
  12. Intrinsic task motivation
    the desire to work on something because it's interesting, involving, exciting, satisfying or personally challenging
  13. Creativity
    The ability to produce novel and useful ideas
  14. Programmed Decision making aids
    • Policy
    • Procedure
    • Rule
  15. Policy
    general guide that establishes parameters for making decisions about recurring problems
  16. procedure
    • a series of interrelated sequential steps that can be used to respond to a well-structured problem
    • (policy implementation)
  17. rule
    • explicit statement that tells managers what they ought or ought not to do
    • (limits on procedural actions)
  18. 4 Decision making styles
    • Directive
    • Analytic
    • Conceptual
    • Behavioral
  19. directive style
    characterizes the low tolerance for abiguity and a rational way of thinking of individuals who are logical and efficient and typically make fast decisions that focus on the short term
  20. Analytic style
    Characterizes the high tolerance for ambiguity combined with a rational way of thinking of individuals who prefer to have complete information before making a decision
  21. Conceptual Style
    individuals who tend to be very broad in outlook, to look at many alternatives, and to focus on the long run and often look for creative solutions
  22. Behavioral Style
    Individuals who think intuitively but have a low tolerance for uncertainty; they work well with others, and are open to suggestions, and are concerned about the individuals who work for them
  23. **advantages to group decision making
    • make more accurate decisions
    • more complete info
    • greater diversity of experiences and perspectives
    • generates more alternatives
    • increases acceptance of a solution
  24. **disadvantages of group decision making
    • more time consuming, less efficient
    • minority domination can influence decision process
    • increased pressures to conform (groupthink)
    • ambiguous responsibility for the outcomes of decisions
  25. How do problems differ?
    • well-structured problems
    • ill-structured problems
    • programmed decisions
    • non-programmed decisions
  26. 4 individual techniques for problem solving
    • analytical technique
    • computer-aided
    • wishful thinking
    • analogies and metaphors
  27. 3 group techniques for problem solving
    • brainstorming
    • reverse brainstorming
    • cardstorming
  28. Guidelines for brainstorming
    • all ideas are given equal respect
    • there is no criticism
    • all ideas are written down and seen by group
    • dictate exactly what is said
  29. Six Problem solving Blocks
    • environmental
    • physical
    • emotional
    • intellectual
    • perceptual
    • cultural
  30. 3 components to a program vision
    • managing and overseeing
    • coaching and mentoring
    • building and supporting community
  31. leadership
    planning for change then implementing, putting into operation and evaluating those changes
  32. administration
    focusing on keeping center running thru committees, policies, regulations
  33. power
    ability to influence another's behavior
  34. authority
    vested right to try and influence others
  35. organization
    a group of persons organized for some end or work
  36. responsibility
    an obligation to perform assigned activities
  37. mentoring
    to serve as a trusted counselor or teacher to another person
  38. characteristics of successful leaders
    • provide social support for employees
    • provide high task orientation
    • provide high degree of technical expertise
    • maintain high degree of role differentiation
    • provide general supervision--not nosy
  39. characteristics of power
    • power typically increases when it is given away
    • power is not guaranteed
    • power has to be earned where authority is given
  40. 5 types of power
    • coercive
    • reward
    • legitimate
    • expert
    • referent
  41. 4 types of leaders; influence
    • Exploitative Authoritative- afraid to talk to management
    • Benevolent Authoritative- workers less afraid
    • Consultative- workers fairly free to talk
    • Participative group- friendly interactions, management knows worker problems
  42. Best type of leader?
    participative group
  43. **Leading vs managing: leading is...
    • supportive
    • developing
    • recognizing
    • rewarding
    • team building and conflict resolution
    • networking
  44. **Leading vs. Management: Management is...
    • planning
    • clarifying
    • monitoring
    • problem solving
    • informing
  45. employment planning
    process by which management ensures it has the right number and kinds of people in the right places at the right time, who are capable of helping the organization achieve its goals
  46. job analysis
    an assessment of the kinds of skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to successfully perform each job in an organization
  47. job description vs. job specification
    What's the difference?
    • description- written statement of what a job holder does, how it is done, and why it is done
    • tasks, duties, and responsibilities that the job entails
    • specification- statement of the minimum acceptable qualifications that an incumbent must possess to perform a given job successfully
    • knowledge, skills, and abilities required of the job holder
  48. What are some selection devices?
    • written tests
    • performance-stimulation tests
    • interviews
    • realistic job preview (RJP)
  49. What are some potential biases in interviews?
    • prior knowledge about applicant
    • stereotypes of good applicants
    • favoritism of similar attitudes
    • order
    • order information is given within the interview
    • negative info
    • forgetfulness
  50. What is a Behavioral/Situational Interview?
    • interview in which candidates are observed not only for what they say, but how they behave to determine how they might behave under stress
    • 8 times more effective
  51. Objectives of orientation?
    • reduce initial anxiety
    • familiarize new employees with the job, work unit, and organization as a whole
    • facilitate the outsider-insider transition
  52. sexual harassment
    sexually suggestive remarks, unwanted touching and sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal and physical conduct of a sexual nature
  53. Ways to prevent violence in the workplace
    • training supervisory personnel to identify troubled employees
    • designing employee assistant programs (EAPs)
    • implementing stronger security
    • preventing violence paraphernalia from entering facilities
  54. How do you deal with the Survivor syndrome?
    • provide opportunities for employees to talk to counselors about guilt, anger, etc
    • provide group discussions for survivors
    • implement employee participation programs such as empowerment and self-managed work teams
Card Set
Admin Test 2
Administration of Early Childhood programs