1. agnosia
    inability to use an object correctly
  2. apraxia
    inability to carry out a puroseful activity
  3. autonomic dysreflexia
    • aka hyperreflexia
    • occurs with spinal lesions above T6
    • some causes include distended bladder, or impacted rectum
  4. autonomic dysreflexia S&S
    paroxysmal htn, bradycardia, excessive sweating, facial flushing, nasal congestion, pilomotor responses, headache
  5. babinskis reflex
    • dorsiflexion of the ankle and great toe with fanning of the other toes elicited by firmly stroking the lateral aspect of the sole of the foot
    • indicates a disruption of the pyramidal tract
  6. brudzinskis sign
    • flexion of the head that causes flexion of both thighs at the hips and knee flexion
    • indicates meningeal irritation
  7. decerebrate posturing
    • stiff extension of one or both arms and possibly the legs
    • indicates brainstem lesion
  8. decorticate posturing
    • flexure of one or both arms on the chest and possible stiff extension of the legs
    • indicates a nonfunctioning cortex
  9. flaccid posturing
    no motor response display in any extremity
  10. glascow coma scale
    • assesses neurological condition
    • scale of 1-15
    • less than 8 indicates that coma is present
  11. halo traction
    • insertion of pins or screws into the clients skull and application of a circular fixation device and halo jacket or cast
    • used to immobilize the cervial spine
  12. hemianopsia
    blindness in half of the visual field
  13. homonymous hemianopsia
    blindness in the same visual field of both eyes
  14. increased ICP
    • can impede circulation to brain
    • absorption of cerebrospinal fluid can affect the functioning of nerve cells
    • can lead to brainstem compression and death
  15. kernigs sign
    • flexure of the thigh and knee to right anges
    • when they are extended, it causes spasm of the hamstring and pain
    • indicates meningeal irritation
  16. nuchal rigidity
    • stiff neck
    • flexion of the neck onto the chest causes intense pain
  17. skull tongs
    tongs inserted into the outer aspect of teh clients skull, just above the ears, with application of traction
  18. spinal shock
    • aka neurogenic shock
    • sudden depression of reflex activity in spinal cord below the level of injury (areflexia)
    • occurs withing first hr of injury and lasts days to months
  19. tensilon test
    • diagnoses myasthenia gravis
    • also differentiates myasthenic crisis and cholinergic crisis
  20. unilateral neglect
    • aka neglect syndrome
    • client is unaware or doesnt use their paralyzed side after a stroke
  21. cerebellum
    • consists of left and right hemispheres
    • governs sensory and motor activity, and though and learning
  22. cerebral cortex
    • outer gray layer
    • divided into 5 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, limbic
    • responsible for conscious activities of cerebrum
  23. frontal lobe
    • broccas area for speech
    • morals, emotions, reasoning and judgements, concentration and abstraction
  24. parietal lobe
    • interpretation of taste, pain, touch, temp, and pressure
    • spatial perception
  25. temporal lobe
    • auditory center
    • wernickes area for sensory and speech
  26. occipital lobe
    visual area
  27. limbic lobe
    • emotional and visceral patterns for survival
    • learning and memory
  28. basal ganglia
    cell bodies in white matter that assist the cerebral cortex in producing smooth voluntary movements
  29. dienchepalon
    divided into thalamus and hypothalamus
  30. thalamus
    • relays sensory impulses to cortex
    • provides pain gate
    • part of reticular activating system
  31. hypothalamus
    • regulates autonomic responses of the parasympathetic nervous systems
    • redulates stress response, sleep, appetite, body temp, fluid balance, and emotions
    • responsible for production of hormones by the pit gland and hypothalmus
Card Set
neurological terms and overview