1. 6 functions of the endocrine system
    • maintenance and regulation of vital functions
    • response to stress and injury
    • growth and development
    • energy metabolism
    • reproduction
    • fluid, electrolyte and acid-base balance
  2. addisonian crisis
    • caused by adrenal hormone insufficiency
    • Precipitated by infection, trauma, stress, or surgery
    • Death can occur from shock, vasular collapse, or hyperkalemia
  3. addisons disease
    • hyposecretion of adrenal cortex hormones (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids) from adrenal gland
    • fatal if untreated
  4. chvosteks sign
    • spasm of the facial muscles elicited by tapping the facial nerve just anterior to the ear
    • noted with hypocalcemia
  5. cushings syndrome
    hypersecretion of glucocorticoids from adrenal cortex
  6. dawn phenomenon
    • results from nocturnal release of GH
    • may cause elevated blood sugar before breakfast
  7. diabetes insipidus
    hyposecretion of ADH from posterior pituitary gland
  8. diabetes mellitus
    • glucose intolerance
    • impaired carb, protein, and lipid metabolism caused by insulin resistance or insulin deficiency
  9. diabetic ketoacidosis
    • develops when severe insulin deficiency occurs
    • progressives from hyperglycemia after several hrs to days
    • occurs in type 1 DM, undiagnosed DM, and people who stop taking prescribed treatment for DM
  10. hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome
    • extreme hyperglycemia w/o acidosis
    • complication of type 2 DM
    • takes hrs to days to onset
  11. hypophysectomy
    removal of pituitary gland
  12. myxedema
    • hypothyroidism
    • puffiness and edema around eyes and face
  13. myxedema coma
    results from perisistently low thyroid hormone levels
  14. somogyi phenomenon
    • occurs in type 1 DM
    • normal/elevated blood sugars at bedtime, and then hypoglycemic about 2am-3am
    • treat with smaller predinner dose or increasing bedtime snack
  15. trousseaus sign
    • hypocalcemia
    • carpal spasm can be elicited by compressing the brachial artery with a blood pressure cuff for 3 min
  16. addisons disease S&S
    • lethartgy, fatigue, muscle weakness
    • gastrointestinal disturbances
    • weight loss, fever
    • menstrual changes, impotence in men
    • hypoglycemia, hyponatremia
    • hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia
    • postural hypotension
    • bronzed skin
  17. cushings disease S&S
    • gernalized muscle weakness, and wasting
    • moonface and buffalo hump
    • truncal obesity with thin extremities
    • supraclvicular fat pads and weight gain
    • hirsutism
    • hyperglycemia, hypernatremia
    • hypokalemia, hypocalcemia
    • hypertension
    • fragile skin that bruises easily
    • reddish purple striae on abd and upper thighs
  18. Conns syndrome
    • primary hyperaldosteronism
    • hypersecretion of mineralcorticoids (aldosterone) from adrenal cortex
  19. pheochromocytoma
    • catecholamine-producing tumor usually in adrenal medulla
    • typically benign
    • excessive epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted
    • associated with having htn
    • keep diet free from stimulants
  20. hypothyroidism S&S
    • lethargy and fatigue
    • weakness, muscle aches, paresthesias
    • intolerance to cold
    • weight gain
    • dry skin and hair and loss of hair
    • bradycardia
    • constipation
    • myxedema
    • forgetfulness and loss of memory
    • enlarged heart and CHF
    • possible goiter
  21. thyroid storm S&S
    • elevated temp
    • tachycardia
    • systolic htn
    • N,V, diarrhea
    • agitation, tremors, anxiety
    • irritability, restlessness, confusion and seizures
    • delirium and coma
  22. signs for tetany
    • cardiac dysrhythmias
    • carpopedal spasm
    • dysphagia
    • muscle and abd cramps
    • numbness and tingling of face and extremities
    • positive chvostek and trousseau
    • photophobia
    • bronchospasm, laryngospasm (wheezing and dyspnea)
    • seizures
  23. hypoparathyroidism S&S
    • hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia
    • numbness and tingling in face
    • muscle cramps and cramps in abd or extremities
    • positive trousseaus or chvosteks sign
    • signs of tetany
    • hypotension
    • anxiety, irritability and dression
  24. hyperparathyroidism S&S
    • hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia
    • fatigue, muscle weakness
    • skeletal pain and tenderness
    • bone deformities, pathological fractures
    • anorexia, N, V, epigastric pain
    • weight loss
    • constipation
    • htn
    • cardiac dysrthmias
    • renal stones
  25. oral hypoglycemic meds
    type 2 DM
  26. insulin lipodystrophy
    • loss of subq fat
    • development of fibrous fatty masses at injection site
    • prevent by rotating site
  27. hypoglycemia S&S
    • hunger
    • nervousness, confusion
    • sweating
    • tachycardia, tremors, seizures
    • double vision, headache, lightheadedness
    • slurred speech, emotional changes
    • numbness of lips and tongue
    • difficulty arousing, loss of conciousness
  28. hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS) vs diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
    HHNS has enough insulin to prevent breakdown of fats for energy, preventing ketosis and acidosis
  29. diabetic retinopathy
    chronic and progressive impairment of retinal circulation that eventually causes hemorrhage (visual changes & blindness)
  30. diabetic nephropathy
    progressive decrease in renal function
  31. diabetic neuropathy
    deterioration of neverous system throughout body
  32. glucagon
    • hormone secreted by alpha cells of ilets of langerhans in pancreas
    • increases blood glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis in liver
Card Set
terms, glands, hormones