What attitudes do people have about their own speech compared to others? How do people see the speech of the south and new York city?
- - Each region has it own social stratification of what is standard/nonstandard
- - Variety of standard English due to: social class, historical consistency, internal complexity
- - English standard imposed by higher class
- - Speak non-standard: minorities, less educated, rural people
- - In the south and new York city: less educated implies less intelligence
- - From own personal experiences and media
- - Just because someone talks in a different standard does not mean they are less intelligent
What does Preston mean when he responds to identify “correct English” and “pleasant English” ? What is the difference between the two?
- - ‘Pleasant English” : south, sounds friendly, may not be correct but most polite
- - ‘Correct English’: Michigan area, official or national status
- - New York City: Suffers in pleasant and correct English (sounds ugly)
What are three common accounts of the origins of African American Vernacular English?
- 1)Distinctive pronunciation and rammatical Ebonics features from Africa
- 2)African slaves learned English from white settlers
- 3)Slaves developed a simplified fusion of English and African languages
What are distinctive features of Ebonics in contrasting with Standard English?
- -Missing the ‘g’ at the end of habitual verbs
- -missing progressive
- -Habitual ‘be’
- -Different stress on ‘bin’
What are the ways of “keeping it real” is exemplified in hip hop practices? What gives hip hop “authenticity’?
- -Tension and conflicting value systems between the two ‘keep it real’
- -Performers run the risk of appearing out dated
- -Membership is determined through audience participation
What are semantic extensions and semantic inversions?
- -Semantic extensions: emphasizes on aspect of an English work definition and changes the words meaning Ex. Wack (dictionary): inadequate/ Wacky: absurd
- -Semantic inversion: means the opposite of the definition of the word in dominant culture. Ex. Down: have positive meaning (im down)
What are some of the linguistic particularities of the mangers mock Spanish?
- “elevation of whiteness”
- Racial inequality
- Using mix of English and Spanish
- Sub of single Spanish morphemes (small meaningful element)
- Syntax structure of English (absence of Spanish grammatical structure)
- Diminishing the complexity of language and cultures
- Fuels discrimination
What benefits did Spanish speakers derive from speaking Spanish?
- Tool of solidarity and resistance
- Control resources of restaurant
- Talk only about anglo workers
- Develop alternative linguistic market
What are the difference between talk in public and talk in public? What function does each serve?
- Public talk:
- Informing people and persuading to particular point of view
- Confirm degree of public status
- Enhance social status
- Classroom talk: teacher talk most associated with higher social status
- Meetings: men dominate and task oriented decision making group
- Men talk more the women in public
- Men share opinions and information
- Interpersonal functions
- Maintains social contracts with others, social connections, developing/reinforcing friendships
- Women talk more in relaxed social context
- Women contribute more, supportative talk, encourages contribution
How do men talk:
- Gives info and opinions
- Dominate conversations between couples Talk in formal public contexts
- Dominate in meetings/classroom talk
How do women talk:
- Ask questions and make
- Contribute in private, informal interactions
- Maintain relationships through talk
What are the types of power that Kiesling analyzes? Which are the most powerful and why?
- Physical: action made physical
- Economic: rewards one action with possibility of another action
- Knowledge: gaining knowledge to perform an action
- Structural: hierarchy
- Nurturant: Helping another
- Demeanor: moral authority, being “good guy”
How is masculinity enacted through speech events?
- Men use speech as tool for power
- Power is masculinity
What is the difference between rapport talk and report talk? Which is typically associated with women?
Report talk: competitive, exchange information, men
Rapport talk: cooperative, talk about people, purpose and subject matter, intimacy and connection, women
What does Cameron say conversation is “not only masculinity, it is sustained performance of masculinity”? why is not considered feminine conversation style?
- men talk as a form of status
- women seek social relations rather than status, but there is status in social relations
- Rewards and punishments concern ones status within group (popularity)
- Gain by showing correct concern for others
- Loose it by displaying to little/too much in ones self
How is women’s language is powerless reflected in women’s language and in language about women?
- Women’s language: absence of strong feelings expression, uncertainty
- Language about women: sexual euphemism, social roles are depends on men
What is the “double bind” discussed?
- Double bind between being feminine and fully human
- Women’s language expresses powerlessness
How do different linguistic styles (or codes) affect the way speakers participate in society?
- Language constructs identities
- Identities is ascribed from other humans
- Hulls: Two different families on icon. Each differed on competitiveness, social skills and verbal interactions
- Bernstien: hierarchal structuring of groups and inequalities. Each used the ‘code’ they grew up with (socialization)
Dells Hymes acronym of SPEAKING:
- Setting – time and please of speech act, culture definition
- Participants- speaker and audience Ends – Purpose, goals and outcomes Act – form and order of events
- Keys – tone and manner Instrumentalities – form and style of speech
- Norms – social rules governing event, participants actions and reactions Genes – kind of story