Science Test

  1. The cold, dense water?
  2. The warm, less dense water?
  3. what is radiation?
    The transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves.
  4. What is convection?
    the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas.
  5. What is the atmosphere?
    Is a mixture of gases that surronds the Earth and the moon.
  6. The highest layer of the atmosphere. temperature can reach 1000 degrees celcius?
  7. What is thermal conduction?
    The transfer of heat through a material.
  8. Why does wind occur?
    Wind occurs because of te difference in air pressure. Warm air low pressure rises.
  9. The middle layer and the coldest?
  10. Where is the ozone found
  11. Layers we live in and closet to the Earth?
  12. Layer that contains the ozone?
  13. What percentage of the atmosphere is oxygen?
  14. Why is air pressure greatest at the earth's surface?
    Beacuse more air is above you.
  15. Global warming is caused by (increased/decreased) greenhouse gases?
    Increased greenhouse gases.
  16. Wind that blow from 30 degrees to the equator?
  17. winds that blow from the poles to 60 degrees?
    polar easterlies.
  18. Winds that blow from 30 degrees to 60 degrees.
  19. Which of the two ocean currents carries water away from the poles?
    deep sea currents.
  20. What are three factors that cause surface currents?
    Global winds, Continental deflections, and corolis effect.
  21. What are surface currents caused by?
  22. What are three factors that cause deep sea currents?
    density, salinty, and temperature.
  23. What does a nightime land breeze occur near the ocean?
    Air over the land is cooler and forms and area of high pressure. The cool air moves toward the ocean, producing a land breeze.
  24. As water becomes more dense what happens to it?
    it sinks to the ocean floor
  25. What is the corolis effect?
    The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean currents due to the Earth's rotation.
  26. What happens when surface currents hit a continent?
    It deflects it.
  27. In what direction do the surface currents in the Northern/Southern Hemisphere move?
    In the northern it goes to the right-clockwise. In the south it does to the left-counterclockwise.
  28. Why would it be bad if greenhouse gases (CO2) were to rise.
    Increasing levels of greenhouse gases may cause average global temperature to rise.
  29. Explain how a greenhouse and greenhouse gases are similiar
    The "greenhouse effect" is named by analogy to greenhouses. The greenhouse effect and a real greenhouse are similar in that they both limit the rate of thermal energy flowing out of the system, but the mechanisms by which heat is retained are different.[25] A greenhouse works primarily by preventing absorbed heat from leaving the structure through convection, i.e. sensible heat transport. The greenhouse effect heats the earth because greenhouse gases absorb outgoing radiative energy and re-emit some of it back towards earth.
  30. composition of the earth
    nitrogen how many percent
    • Nitrogen-78%
    • Oxygen-21%
    • remaining 1%
    • Nitrogen the most common atmospheric gas, is released when dead plants and dead animals break down and when volcanoes errupt.

    Oxygen-, the sedcond most commong atmospheric gas, is made by phtoplankton and plants.

    The remaining 1% of the atmosphere is made up of argon, carbon dioxide, and other gases.
  31. What is the invisible gas that most water in the atmosphere have.
    water vapor.
  32. What is air pressure?
    Aire pressure is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface.
  33. What also changes when altitude changes?
    Air temperature also changes as altitude changes
  34. Where is air pressure the strongest.
    Air pressure is the strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above us.
  35. Facts on troposphere?
    • Is the densest atmospheric layer.
    • It contains almost 90% of the atmosphere's total mass.
  36. What does most of the solar energy go as it reaches the Earth's atmosphere?
    • About 25% is scattered and reflected by clouds and air.
    • About 20% is absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gases.
    • About 50% is absorbed by Earth's surface.
    • About 5% is reflected by Earth's surface.
  37. What is convection current?
    The cycle of warm air rising and cool air sinking causes a circular movement of air.
  38. What is the greenhouse effect?
    The warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases absorb and reradiate thermal energy.
  39. What is global warming?
    Global warming is the increase in average global temperature.
  40. What is pressure belts?
    bands of high pressure and low pressure found about every 30 degrees of latitude.
  41. What is convection cells?
    Air that travels in many large, circular patterns
  42. What is the polar easterlies
    Prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60 degrees and 90 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
  43. What are trade winds
    Prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30 degrees north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30 degrees south latiude to the equator.
  44. What are easterlies?
    Prevailing winds that blow from west to east between 30 degrees and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres.
  45. What are global winds?
    The combination of convection cells found at every 30 degree of latitude and the corolis effect produces patterns of air circulation called global winds
  46. What are doldrums?
    The trade winds of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres meet in an area around the equator called the doldrums.
  47. What are horse latitudes
    At about 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitude, sinking air creates an area of high pressure. The winds at these locations are weak. These areas are called horsh latitudes.
  48. What are jet streams?
    Jet stream is a narrow belt of strong winds that blow in the upper troposphere.
  49. What is air pollution?
    Air pollution is the contamination of the atmosphere by the introduction of pollutants from human and natural resources.
  50. What are primary pollutants?
    Pollutants that are put directly into the air by human or natural activity. Primary pollutants from natural sourcesinclude, dust, sea sult, volcanic gases and ash, smoke from forest firesm and pollen.
  51. What is acid precipitation>
    Rain,sleet, or snow that contains a high concentration of acids.

    Precipitation such as rain, sleet, or snow that contains acids from air pollution.
  52. What is a scrubber?
    A scrubber is a device that is used to remove some pollutants before they are released by smokestacks.
  53. How do ocean currents influence the climate of the land by it?
    California Current(cold current) causes the west coast to have a cooler climate Gulf Stream (warm current) causes the east coast to have warmer temperature.
  54. How does temperature and salinty affect deep sea currents?
    The colder the ocean water is more dense it is, so it will sink farther down. The more salinty(salt)the water has, the greater the density.So it will also sink farther.
  55. Rank in terms of density?
    • Warm ocean water with little salt.
    • Warm ocean water with more salt.
    • Cold ocean water with little salt.
    • Coldest ocean water with the most salt.
  56. What percent of the atmosphere is nitrogen?
  57. What is acidification?
    Plant communities have adapted over long periods of time to the natural acidity of the soil in which they grow. Acid precipitation can cause the acidity of soil to increase. This process is called acidification.
  58. What is a major source of human caused air pollution?
    A major source of air pollution today is transportation.Cars contribute about 10% to 20% of the human-caused air pollution in the United States. Vehicle exhaust contains nitrogen oxide, which contributes to smog formation and acid precipitation.
  59. What is CFC'S causing?
    Chemicals called CFC's were causing ozone to break down into oxygen, which does not bloack the sun's harmful ultraviolet rays.
  60. What causes differnces in air pressure?
    unequal heating of the Earth.
  61. The movement of air caused by differnces in air pressure is called?
  62. Air is warmer and less dense than surrounding air at the equator because the equator recieves more?
    solar energy
  63. Because air at the poles in colder and denser than surrounding air, it
  64. High pressure areas are created around the poles as cold air?
  65. After high pressure areas are created around the poles, cold polar air flows toward?
    the equator
  66. Large. circular patterns of air movement are called?
    convection cells
  67. Bands of high pressure and low pressure found every 30 degrees of latitude are called?
    pressure belts
  68. When the paths of winds and ocean currents seem to curve because of the Earth's rotation, it's called the
    corolis effect.
  69. Narrow belt of high speed winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are called
    jet streams
  70. Winds that blow from 30 degrees latitude in both hemisphere almost to the equator
    trade winds
  71. the area around the equator where trade winds meet?
  72. wind formed as cold, sinking air moves from the poles 60 degrrees north to 60 degrees south latitude.
    polar easterlies
  73. wind belts that extend between 30B0 and 60 degrees latitude in both hemispheres
  74. area in which sinking air created high pressure and weak winds at about 30 degrees north and 30 degrees south latitude.
    horse latitudes
  75. Narrow belts of high speed winds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are called
    jet streams
  76. How can geographic features can cause local winds?
    Temperature difference cause local winds and different geopgraphic features.
  77. How long does it take the sun's energy to reach teh Earth?
    about 8 minutes.
  78. What percentage of the energy radiated by the sun reaches the Earth's surface?
  79. What percentage of the sun's energy that reaches the Earth is absorbed by Earth's surface?
  80. What percentage of the sun's energy that reaches the Earth is absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gases.
  81. Transfer of energy as heat through a material
    thermal conduction
  82. transfer of energy by circulation or movement of a gas
  83. circulation movement of warm air rising and cool air sinking?
    convection current
  84. transfer of energy as electromagnetic waves
  85. What process produces the greenhouse effect?
    Is the process by which gases in the atmosphere, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, absorb thermal energy and radiate it back to earth.This is called the greenhouse effect because the gases function like the glass walls and roof of a greenhouse, which allows sp;ar energy to enter but prevent thermal energy from escaping.
  86. The balance between incoming solar enrgy and outgoing energy radiated into space is called?
    radiation balance
  87. A gradual increase in average global temperature is called?
    global warming
  88. What are greenhouse gases
    Are gases that absorb thermal energy in the atmosphere
  89. What human activities may increase the level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?
    Burning of fossil feuls and deforesation, may be increasing levels of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Card Set
Science Test