1. Def`n Motivation
    a process which governs the direction (approach or avoid), intensity (effort), persistence (duration), and quality (superficial or deep) of effort
  2. Three orientations for studying motivation
    • 1. Trait-centered view (goal-orientation: task or ego affects beh through attitudes and beliefs)
    • 2. Stiuation-centered view (motivation is a function of the characteristics of the situation)
    • 3. Interactionist view (motivation is a function of the interaction between the individual`s characteristics and the siuation)
  3. 5 guidelines for building motivation
    • 1. Recognize that both situations (easier to change) and traits affect motivation
    • 2. Recognize that there are multiple (competing, different, changing) motives for involvement in sport
    • 3. Recognize that you can change the env to change motivation (competitive vs. non-competitive, novel, coaching)
    • 4. Recognize that leaders influence motivation
    • 5. Recognize the use of behavior modification programs to change undesirable participant motives
  4. Example for situation-centered view of motivation
    • intrinsic motivation
    • -people need (want) to feel efficient at activities under their control
    • -affected by positive feedback
  5. Example of interactionist approach to motivation
    • affiliation motivation: concern of establishing, maintaining, or restoring positive affective relationships with people
    • -approval oriented (need to gain social approval is greater than need to avoid social rejection) or rejection threatened
  6. def`n achievement motivation
    • self-comparison of achievement
    • -strive for task success, persist in failure, experience pride in accomplishments
  7. def`n competitiveness
    • social evaluation or comparison
    • -disposition for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others
  8. Why study acheivement motivation?
    • 1. understand athlete's choice of activity
    • 2. understand athlete's effort levels on a task
  9. 5 major achievement motivation theories
    • 1. self-determination theory
    • 2. need acheivement theory
    • 3. attribution theory
    • 4. achievement goal theory
    • 5. competence motivation theory
  10. def'n self-determination theory of achievement motivation
    • for an individual to experience the highest levels of intrinsic motivation on a task, they need to have 3 psychological needs fulfilled: competence, autonomy, relatedness (CAR)
  11. def'n of need achievement theory of acheivement motivation
    • -interactionist approach that considers personality and situational factors as motivating beh
    • personality factors (achieve sucess or avoid failure) x situational factors (probability and incentive for success)= resultant tendency (high ach max challenge or uncertainty vs low ach max certainty)--> emotional reactions (pride or shame) --> achievement beh (evaluative challenge or avoidance)
    • PS REA
  12. def'n attribution theory of achievement motivation
    • =examine factors upon which people attribute success and failure
    • -original 2-D model: stability (stable or unstable) and locus of causality (internal or external)
    • -3rd dimension: controllability
  13. Problems with attribution theory of achievement motivation
    -based on individual's perceptions not on the theorist's perceptions
  14. 6 theories on how arousal and anziety affect performance
    • 1. Drive Theory
    • 2. Inverted U-hypothesis
    • 3. Individualized Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF)
    • 4. Catastrophe Theory
    • 5. Multidimensional anxiety theory
    • 6. Reversal Theory
  15. Def`n drive theory
    • -as arousal increases, performance of the dominant response increases as well
    • -for basic simple motor skills
    • ie. social facilitation improves well-lerned simple tasks in presence of others, performance of poorly-learned, compelx tasks decreases in presence of others
  16. def`n inverted U-hypothesis
    -midrange of physiological arousal for optimal performance
  17. Limitations of drive theory for explaining how arousal and anxiety affect performance
    -can`t explain why some elite athletes choke
  18. Limitations of inverted U-hypothesis in explaining how arousal and anxiety affect performance
    • 1. can`t explain sudden crash in performance
    • 2. doesn`t focus on anxiety
    • 3. assumes everyone needs a moderate level of arousal
  19. def`n IZOF for explaining how arousal and anxiety affect performance
    • individualized zones of optimal functioning
    • -every athlete has an optimal zone of anxiety or arousal for ideal performances (can be in lower, middle, or upper end of the state anxiety continuum)
    • -cluster analysis, intra-individual approach
  20. limitations of IZOF
    • 1. multiple assessments take a long time
    • 2, need considerable experience to identify performance-anxiety zones and outliers
    • 3. difficult for coaches to be aware of each athlete`s IZOF
  21. def`n catastrophe theory and its graph
    • -incorporates cognitive state anxiety, physiological arousal as they affect athletic performance
    • -complex relationship
  22. Key summary points from arousal and anxiety lecture
    • 1. Arousal and anxiety do NOT always have negative effects on performance
    • 2. They can be facilitative or decilitative depending on the INTERPRETATION. Self-confidence and enhanced perceptions of control
  23. def`n multidimensional anxiety theory
    -cognitive anxiety is negatively related to performance and physiological anxiety is an inverted U
  24. def`n reversal theory
    • -performance depends on individual`s interpretation of arousal level (interpretation can change)
    • -pleasant excitement interpretation is better for performance than unpleasant anxiety
  25. Components to understanding anxiety
    • 1. intensity (amt of anxiety)
    • 2. direction (interpretation as facilitative or debilitative)
  26. Jones' model of facilitative and debilitative anxiety
    • perceived control--> facilitative
    • no control--> debilitative
  27. Outcomes of high arousal or anxiety
    • 1. Muscle tension, fatigue, coordination difficulties
    • 2. too narrow of attnl focus
    • 3. Decrease environmental scanning
    • 4. shift to dominant attnl style
    • 5. attn to inappropriate cues
  28. Def'n processing efficiency theory
    • -increased anxiety interferes with WM resources
    • -affects the long run
  29. Def'n task and ego orientation of motivation
    • 1. Task--personal improvement, personal mastery, high effort
    • 2. Ego--acheiving favorable normative social evaluation (want to look better than competition)
  30. Guidelines for building motivation (5)
    • 1. situation and trait affect motivation
    • 2. multiple motives why
    • 3. change env to change motivation (competitive vs. non-comp, novel, coaching)
    • 4. leaders influence motivation
    • 5. beh modification programs to change undesirable participant motives
  31. 2 habitual attribution patterns
    • 1. pessimistic explanatory style (attribute failure to internal-stable, uncontrollable factors)--> learned helplessness
    • 2. optimistic explanatory style (attribute failure to external-unstable, or internal-unstable factors)--> expect future success

    -accurately understand why they failed and succeeded
  32. def'n achievement goal theory
    • -explains motivation
    • -interactionist theory that considers: achievement goals (ego goal or task goal orientation), perceived ability (high or low), motivational climate, achievement behavior (performance, effort, persistence, task choice)
    • APMA (Achievement goals + perceived ability--> achievement beh)
  33. def'n Competence motivation theory
    • -motivated to feel worthy or competent
    • -takes emotions (affect) into account
  34. basic attribution categories for successes and failures
    • 1. stability
    • 2. locus of causality
    • 3. locus of control
  35. Outcome goal focus that ability is fixed and unable to change through effort
    entity view
  36. task goal perspective that ability can change through hard work
    incremental focus
  37. Stages of achievement motivation and competitiveness (3)
    • 1. autonomous competence stage--environment mastery, little social comparison, <4yrs old
    • 2. Social comparison stage--compare self to others, age 5
    • 3. Integrated stage--both social and self comparison
  38. Key components of personality
    • 1. Role-related beh (dynamic, external, strongly influenced by social env)--how you act in diff situations
    • 2. Typical responses--measured repeatedly, how you typically respond in diff situations
    • 3. Psychological core (consistent, internal)--basic and deepest attitudes, values, interests, and motives
  39. Approaches to studying personality
    • 1. Psychodynamic approach-unconscious mechanisms
    • 2. Trait approach-consistent, enduring characteristics
    • 3. Situation approach-the env and REINFORCEMENTS
    • 3. Interactional approach-the characteristics and env
    • 4. Phenomenological approach-the subjective interpretation of themselves and their experiences
  40. def'n Psychodynamic approach
    • -the study of the unconscious mechanisms that are in conflict that make up a person`s personality
    • -conflict between ID and SUPEREGO, subjective unconscioue mechanisms
    • -difficult to test and replicate, little focus on social env
  41. def'n trait approach to studying personality
    • -to study personality
    • -the study of the enduring, consistent characteristics that predisposes people to act in a certain way
    • (Cattell's 16 personality facotrs and Big Five Trait model of personality components)
    • -no mention or situation, no one ideal personality
  42. Historical periods in sport and exercise psych?
    • Every Good Player Eats Many Chips
    • 1. The Early Years
    • 2. The Griffith Era
    • 3. Preparation for the future
    • 4. Est of academic sport psych
    • 5. Multidisciplinary science and practice in sport and exercise psychology
    • 6. Contemporary sport and exercise psychology
  43. def'n POMS
    • Profile of Mood States
    • -compares mood states between successful (score higher on vigor, iceberg profile) and less successful athletes
    • -intra-individual approach, repeated measurements prior to competition
  44. Norman Triplett
    • -The Early Years (Period 1)
    • -1st social psych and sport psych experiment
  45. Griffith
    • The Griffifth Era (Period 2)
    • -1st lab in sport psych
  46. Franklin Henry
    • -Preparation for the future (Period 3)
    • -responsible for field's scientific development
  47. Bruce Ogilvie
    • -Establishment of academic sport psychology (Period 4)
    • -est as a science
  48. What is sport and exercise psychology?
    scientific study of people and their beh in sport and exercise contexts and the practical application of that knowledge
  49. Main purposes of sport psychology?
    • 1. effects of psychological factors on physical performance
    • 2. effects of physical activity on psychological development
  50. def'n psychophysiological orientation to studying sport psychology
    study of psychological (anxiety/arousal) process through measures of physiological responses
  51. measure situation anxiety
    -better predictive power than trait anxiety
  52. def'n social-psychological orientation to studying sport psychology
    -beh is determined by a complex interaction between env and the individual
  53. def'n cognitive-behavioral orientation to research in sport psychology
    • -beh is determined by env and cognition
    • -role of cognition is the primary determinant of beh
  54. According to the situation approach to studying personality, behaviors and personality are shaped by: _ and _
    • 1. observational learning (imitating observed beh)
    • 2. social reinforcement (feedback)

    Social learning theory--vicarous learning, people don`t have to receive punishment or reward to shape beh, they will copy beh that have received (+) social rein
  55. people need (want) to feel efficient at activities under their control
    • -intrinsic motivation
    • -example of situation-centered view of motivation
  56. people are approval oriented or rejection threatened
    • -affiliation motivation
    • -an example of the interactionist view
  57. the tendency to ____ for task success, ____ in the face of failue, and ___ ___ in accomplishments
    • strive, persist, experience pride
    • -achievement motivation
  58. achievement motivation
    self-comparison or achievement
  59. competitiveness
    social evaluation or comparison
  60. seek out maximum challenge or max uncertainty
    high acheivers
  61. avoid maz challenge/uncertainity, seek out ___ or ___ situations (max certainty)
    • very easy or very hard
    • -low achievers
  62. 4 characteristics of high achievers
    • 1. motivated to achieve success
    • 2. seek max challenge and max uncertainty
    • 3. focus on experiencing pride
    • 4. seek out challenge in evaluative situations
  63. 4 characteristics of low acheivers
    • 1. motivated to avoid failure
    • 2. seek max certainty
    • 3. focus on avoiding shame
    • 4. avoid challenge in evaluative situations
  64. def'n anxiety
    (-) feelings of worry, nervousness, and aprehension due to an individual's interpretations of events and its associated arousal patterns
  65. ____: an ____ emotional state that is ___ and characterized by feelings of ___ due to activation of the ___
    • -state anxiety
    • -unstable or fluctuating, subjective, apprehension, autonomic nervous system
  66. 2 types of state anxiety and their def'ns
    • 1. cognitive state anxiety: worries and concerns
    • 2. somative state anxiety: perceived unpleasant physiological response to threatening situations
  67. a stable personality disposition that describes and individual's tendency to perceive competitive siutations as threatening and respond with state anxiety
    competitive state anxiety
  68. 3 measures of Competitive State anxiety inventory-2 (CSAI-2) or Mental readiness form
    • 1. Somatic A-state
    • 2. Cognitive A-state
    • 3. State Confidence
  69. The state (situation threat) must be congruent with the athlete's trait anxiety
    Endler's differential hypothesis
  70. How does anxiety affect performance? (3)
    • 1. muscle tension and coordination difficulties--involutary contractions
    • 2. attn/concentration changes--preoccupation with inappropriate task (cognitive interference)
    • 3. over-aroused--attnl narrowing
  71. an experience that is taxing the athlete's resources
  72. a demand made on the inidivual that is appraised as taxing his or her resources
  73. ___: an ___ ___ ___ that includes __, __, and ____ efforts to manage appraised demans (stressors)
    • -coping
    • -ongoing dynamic process, cognitive, behavioral, affective
Card Set
Sport Psychology