1. % of organisms grown in pure culture and why is that significant?
    1% and significant b/c 99% are unknown to biologists and knowlege is limitted
  2. how is agar made?
    polysacharide derived from marine alga, and used as thickener in foods
  3. why agar suitable to grow microbes? temperatures at liquid and solid states?
    • few microbes degrade agar, so it remains solid.
    • liquifies at 100 degrees C (boiling point of water) and remains liquid until 40 degrees C.
  4. sterile?
    free of living organisms
  5. aseptic technique?
    procedure to minimize unintentional introduction of microorganism
  6. Minimum/optimum/maximum temp range for psychrophiles?
    • -100 celcius to 200 celcius
    • optimum 150
  7. Minimum/optimum/maximum temp range for pschrotrophs?
    • 00 celcius to 300 celcius
    • optimum 250
  8. Minimum/optimum/maximum temp range for mesophils?
    • 100 to 500 celcius
    • optimum 250
  9. Minimum/optimum/maximum temp range for thermophils?
    • 400 celcius to 700 celcius
    • optimum 550
  10. Minimum/optimum/maximum temp range for hyperthermophils?
    • 650 celcius to 1100 celcius
    • optimum 800
  11. why does growth stop at the min and max temperatures?
    • protien denatures
    • membrane fluidity
  12. what is osmotic pressure and give example?
    • amt of pressure in concentration of solute in a soln.
    • example---> water goes where increased salt/sugar is so pressure pushes more water in that direction to dilute it.
  13. how osmotic pressure effects microbe growth?
    high salt/sugar draw water out of cells and rpevent growth.
  14. why microbes require carbon?
    growth- needed for all living cells
  15. why microbes need sulfur?
    protien synthesis
  16. why microbes need nitrogen?
    • synthesis of DNA/RNA
    • from amino group of amino acids of protiens
  17. trace elements? cofactor? why are they important?
    • trace elements = cofactors
    • cofactor are inorganic particles that are required for the fxn of other elements.
  18. obligate aerobes
    organism require oxygen to live
  19. facultative anerobes
    organism that continue to grow in absence of oxygen
  20. obligate anearobes
    organism unable to use oxygen for reactions needing energy.
  21. aerotolerant anaerobes
    organism taht cant use oxygen for growth, but tolerate it
  22. microaerophiles
    organism that require oxygen (aerobic)
  23. 4 phases of microbial growth curve
    • lag phase- prepare for population growth, but no increase in population (little to no cell division)
    • log phase- logarithmic/exponential increase in population as cells begin to divide
    • stationary phase- equilibrium (death = # of cells produced)
    • death phase- population decrease at logarithmic rate. number of deaths is greater then new cells formed.
  24. gram stain is old... how would it look?
    mixed results.
  25. biofilms
    communities of microbes reside in matrix made up of polysaccharide that contain DNA adn protien
  26. sepsis
    microbial contamination
  27. asepsis
    absence of significant contamination
  28. sterilization
    destruction of all forms of microbial life, including endospores with possible exeption of prion
  29. commercial sterilization
    heat tx to kill endospores of botulisum in canned food
  30. disinfection
    destruction of vegatative pathogens
  31. antisepsis
    destruction of vegatative pathogens on livign tissues
  32. degerming
    removal of microbes from limitted area, such as skin around injection site
  33. sanitization
    tx intended to lower microbe count on eating utensils
  34. germicide/biocide
    death of microbe
  35. bacteriostasis
    inhibit growth/multiplication of bacteria
  36. nosocomial infections? why are they higher then norm rate?
    hospital acquired infection r/t patient vulnerability/low immune system and invasive procedures done
  37. how to control nosocomial infections?
    • aseptic technique
    • handle contamination careful
    • insist of frequent and good hand washing
  38. decimal reducation time and how measured?
    • r/t heat resistance adn is the time in minutes in which 90% if bacteria will be killed at given temp.
    • measurement---> 1 log decrease = 90% population killed
  39. critical items? give examples
    • critical items puncture tissues
    • examples: needle, stitch, scalpel, knife, razor
  40. semi critical items? examples?
    • come in contact with mucous membranes
    • examples: oral thermometer, foley cath, nasal spray, inhaler, speculum
  41. non critical items? examples?
    • come into contact with unbroken skin
    • examples: stethoscope, bp cuff, pulse ox, sun tan bed surface, stop watch
  42. 3 types of heavy metal that have antimicrobial action?
    • silver(Ag)
    • copper (Cu)
    • mercury (Hg)
  43. types of food preservation?
    • organic acid
    • sorbic acid, benzoic acid, calcium propionate
    • nitrates
    • antibiotics
    • aldehyde
    • gaseous sterilant
    • peroxygens
  44. why calcium proprionate is used as food preservative ?
    inhibit metabolism, control mold and bacteria
  45. contributions of paul erlich?
    1910 discovered salvarasan, arsenic compound. came up with using chemicals to tx infection
  46. contribution of alexander fleming?
    1928 left lab dirty adn mold grew on open petri dish, lead to discovery of penicillin, which led to first clinical trials
  47. contribution of gerhard domagk?
    1932 discovered sulfa drug effective for sex transmitted disease
  48. contribution of ernst chain/howard florey?
    1941 penicillin purified and avail after WW 2
  49. chemotherapy?
    any chemical or drug used to treat disease
  50. antimicrobial drugs?
    interfere with growth of microbes within host
  51. antibiotic?
    substance produced by microorganism that in sm amt inhibit another microorganism
  52. selective toxicity?
    drug that kills harmful microbe without damage of host
  53. drug used to tx protozoa or malaria?
  54. drug used to tx fungi
  55. drug used to tx helminth?
    • niclosamide (tape worm)
    • praziquantel (flukes)
  56. drug used for tx of virus?
  57. drug to tx gram (+) bacteria?
    penicillin G
  58. drug to tx mycobacterium ONLY? (TB)
  59. drug to tx mycobacterium AND gram (-) bacteria?
  60. drug to tx gram (-) and gram (+) bacteria AND Chlamydia/Rickettsia?
    tetracycline (most broad spectrum)
  61. how penecillin works?
    Inhibit cell wall synthesis
  62. how cephalosporin effect microbes?
    inhibit cell wall synthesis as penecillin but formed slightly different which makes more effective agains more gram (-) bacteria then penecillin
  63. why vancomycin important?
    only tx still works for MRSA
  64. what is MRSA and what is tx?
    • Methicillin resisistant Staphylococcus Aureus that is resistnat to antibiotic methicillin adn most other antibiotics.
    • IV vancomycin is only tx left that is still effective
  65. how drug resistance develop?
    • mutations can lead to resistance
    • misuse of antibiotic
  66. synergism?
    therapeutic effect of 2 drug given together is greater then if given either drug alone
  67. antagonism?
    simultaeous use of 2 drugs has less effect then if either drug taken alone
  68. antimicrobial peptides?
    antibiotic that is bactericidal AND broad spectrum of activity
  69. antisense agents?
    complementary DNA or peptide nucleic acid that bind to pathogens gens and prevent transcription
  70. bacteriopahge?
    virus that infects bacterial cells
  71. virus?
    submicroscopic, parasitic, filterable agent consist of nucliec acid surround by protien coat
  72. virion?
    complete fully developed viral particle
  73. 2 ways virus attach and infect cells?
    • lysogenic- cell replicates and host cell remains alive
    • lytic- ends with lysis and death of host cell
  74. viral taxonomy rules?
    • family names end in - viridae
    • genus name end in- virus
    • common name used for species
    • subspecies designated by number
  75. 2 ways virus grown in lab?
    • embryonated egg- hole drilled in shell adn virus injected in flud of egg. viral growth seen by death of embryo, embryo cell damage or formation of pocks/lesions on egg membranes
    • cell culture- treat slice of animal tissue with enzymes that seperate individual cells. these cells suspended in soln adn normal cells will adhere to glass/plastic container adn virus will infect monolayer causing celsl to deteriorate as they multiply.
  76. ways virus are identified?
    • cytopathic effect- visible effect of viral infection (s/s of pt)
    • serological tests- virus detected and identified by its reaction with antibiotics by using specific testing
  77. stages of bacteriophage multiplication?
    • attachment: phage attach by tail fiber
    • penetration: phage lysozyme opens cell wall and tail fibers contract and force tail core and DNA into cell
    • biosynthesis: production of DNA and protien
    • maturation: assembly of phage particle
    • release: phage lysozyme breaks cell wall (lysis)
  78. stages of animal virus multiplication?
    • attachment: virus attach to cell membrane
    • penetration: endocytosis/fusion
    • uncoating: viral or host enzyme
    • biosynthesis: prodution of viral genetic material/protiens
    • maturation: viral particle assembled
    • release: budding (enveloped) or cell lysis
  79. Lytic cycle in detail
    • attachment: chance collision between phage particle and bacteria and attachment site on virus attaches to complementary receptor site on bacteria
    • penetration: after attachment, bacteriophage injects DNA intio bacteria. the tail releases an enzyme which breaks down a portion of bacterial cell wall. the tail contracts and core is driven through cell wall.
    • biosynthesis: DNA reaches cytoplasm of host cell and biosynthesis of viral nucliec acid and protien occurs. host protien synthesis stops. Phage uses host cell to make many copies of DNA. biosynthesis of viral protien then begins and RNA transcribed in cell as mRNA.
    • maturation: bacteria DNA and capsid assembled into complete virion. this happens simultaneously eliminating need for nonstructural genes and gene product. the phage head/tail are seperated from protien subunit and head filled with DNA and attached to tail
    • release: realease from host cell. plasma membrane breaks open (lysis) and lysozyme causes bacteria cell wall to break down and release from host cell. it infects other susceptible cells and then multiplies with those cells
  80. lysogenic cycle in detail
    • attachment: phage attaches to host cell and injects DNA
    • penetration: phage DNA circulizes adn enters lytic cycle or lysogenic cycle. the original linear phage DNA forms circle adn can multiply adn be transcribed leading to production of new phage adn cell lysis (lytic cycle)
    • in lysogenic cycle: circle can recombine adn become part of circular bacterial DNA (lysogenic cycle) the inserted DNA how are repressed by 2 repressor protien. they stop transcription of all other phage genes by binding to operators.
    • every time host cells machinery replicates bacteria chromosome also replicates prophage DNA. (remains latent in progeny cells)
    • in some cases: spontaneous event/action of UV light/chemicals cause popping out of phage DNA and initiation of lytic cycle
  81. latent viral infection
    equilibrium virus within host and doesnt' produce disease for long periods of time (herpes virus)
  82. persistant viral infections?
    chronic viral infections that occur gradual over time (fatal)
  83. double strand DNA non envelope virus?
    • masadenovirus (resp infect in hman/tumor in animal)
    • paillomavirus (human warts)
  84. double strand DNA envelope virus?
    • poxviridae (small poz/vaccinia virus)
    • herpesviridae (chicken pox/shingle/fever blister)
    • hepadnaviridae (hep B)
  85. single strand DNA non envelope virus?
    • parvoviridae
    • human parvovirus
  86. single strand RNA + stand non envelope virus?
    • picornaviridae (enterovirus- polio/coxsackie)(rhinovirus)
    • caliciviridea (hep A/norovirus)
  87. single strand RNA + strand enveloped virus?
    • togaviridae- (equine encephalitis/rubella)
    • flavaviridae- (west nile/yellow fever)
    • coronaviridae- (cold/SARS)
  88. prion?
    infectious protien inherited adn transmitted by ingestion, transplant adn invasive procedure
  89. problem with storing pure culture?
    • freezing- still can grow/kills sample as ice crystal can rip apart cells d/t water in it
    • lyophiliztion- freeze drying is best mode to store pure culture as it takes out water adn results in powder
    • slants- dry out if put in incubator
  90. inoculation?
    introduce microbe into medium
  91. culture?
    microbes growing in/on medium
  92. enrichment media
    encourage growth of specific microbe by isolation with specific characteristics from heterogenous population
  93. things effect tx of microbe death?
    • # of microbes
    • environment
    • time of exposure
    • microbial charateristic
  94. how antimicrobial agents work?
    • alter membrane permeability
    • damage protiens
    • damage nucliec acid
  95. how heat used to control microbes?
    • boiling- fast, cheap reliable (doesnt kill endospores)
    • pasterization- decrese number of microbes
    • pressureized steam- achieve temp above 100 degrees celcius to destroy endospore (autoclave)
    • dry heat (open flame)- high temp for long length
  96. how radiation disinfect
    damage DNA
  97. how osmotic pressure control microbes?
  98. desiccation to control microbes?
    prevent metabolism
  99. how soap effective for disinfect?
  100. how acid anionic detergent disinfects?
  101. how QUATS disinfect?
    • bactericidal
    • denature protiens
    • disrupt plasma membrane
  102. effective against endospore?
    • chlorine (fair)
    • glutaraldehyde (fair)
  103. effective against mycobacteria?
    • phenolic (good)
    • chlorine (fair)
    • alcohol (good)
    • glutaraldehyde (good)
  104. virus characteristics?
    • DNA/or RNA
    • protien coat
    • some enclosed in envelope
    • some spiked
    • only infect specific type of cells in 1 host
  105. virion characteristic?
    • virus particle
    • capsid is protien coat surround nucleic acid
    • capsid made up of individual protien capsomers
    • virion particle is protien, nuclieic acid (nucleocapsid)
    • non enveloped virus = naked
  106. virus morphology?
    • helical- long rod looking
    • polyhedral- 20 triangle faces with 12 corners
    • complex- combination of above
  107. mulitplication of retrovirus (RNA virus)
    inject RNA to make DNA and back to RNA (backwards)
  108. prion disease?
    • CJD
    • sheep scrapie
    • mad cow disease
    • kuru
  109. varicella zoster virus
    • chicken pox, human to human, respiratory droplets, skin lesions start on torso and spread to arms/legs
    • tx- acyclovir
  110. epstein barr
    • Mono, shed in oral secretions of asymtomatic adult
    • fever, sore thraot, lymphadenopathy
    • tx- rest , fluid NO ANTIBIOTIC
  111. hantavirus
    • human infect via aerosolized rodent saliva or urine
    • mild fever, follow by acute resp distress syndrome
    • to tx
  112. SARS
    • severe acute resp syndrome
    • srpead by aerosolized droplets
    • fever, follow by 3-4 days of dry cough, trouble breathing
    • chest xray to confirm
    • tx- supportive care, prevention
  113. influenza
    • spread by aerosolized resp secretions
    • high fever, head ache, myalgia, rhinorrhea, uncomfortable night sweat, ache,
    • infect resp epithelium and kill host cell as it replicates.
  114. bird flu (H5N1)
    • resp secretions from another infect person (inhalation/contact with infect object)
    • virus kills resp mucosa cells
    • tx- symmetrel, relenza, tamiflu
    • 2 forms-( low patho)- undetected with mild s/s (high patho) spread rapid
    • jumped species and gone from bird to human
    • little to no immune protection
    • s/s- fever, cough, sore throat, muscle ache, (serious) eye infection, pneumonia, resp distress
  115. what is bird flu?
    • small group of virus (orthomyxovirus/influenza)
    • surface of virus covered with priotien (heamagglutinnin and neuraminidase)
    • H protien attaches
    • N protien let virus get out of infected cell (cant reproduce without H and N protien)
  116. H1N1?
    • influenza A from pig
    • pig got 2 pig flu/1 human flu/1 bird flu all at same time
    • s/s- regular flu but with GI s/s and more severe----> fatigue, headache, sore throat, nasal congest, vomit, diarrhea, nausea
    • transmit from cough/sneeze and by touch
    • tx- rest , fluid, manage fever, resistant to antiviral drug
  117. common cold
    • rhinovirus 50%
    • coronovirus 15-20 %
    • tx- vaccine ineffective
  118. herpes simplex virus
    • spred by contact with infected skin or mucous membrane
    • HSV1- oral
    • HSV2- genital
    • tx- acyclovir
    • virus replicate in epithelium adn infect nerve ending
  119. poliomyelitis
    • poliovirus transmited by ingestion
    • s/s- sore throat, nausea
    • attacks brain stem and cant control body movement
    • tx- vaccine prevention
  120. rabies
    • rhabdovirus
    • animal bite transmission
    • infect skeletal muslce then brain cell causing encephalitis
    • s/s- msucle spasm of mouth/throuat, hydrophobia
    • tx- (post) vaccine and immunoglobulin (pre) inject of human diploid cells vaccine
    • types- (furious rabies) animal hightly exciteable (paralytic)- animal unaware of surrounding
  121. ebola hemorrhagic fever
    • severe fatal disease
    • animal borne (bats)
    • spread by body fluid /body fluid contact
    • s/s- fev er, headache, muscle and joint pain, sore throuat, weakness, diarrhea, vomit, stomach pain, rash , red eyes, hiccups, internal /external bleed, (bleed out)
    • tx- fluid, electrolyte, oxygen, bp, prevent complications
  122. HPV
    • human papillovirus
    • more then 150 strains
    • 30 sexually transmitted
    • 15 classified as high risk
    • some cause abnormal paps
    • transmission- genital contact, carriers unaware, can pass to baby
    • link to cervical cancer
    • vaccine- gardisiland 98 % effective for male and female
Card Set
growth of organisms and treatment, virus and prions