What is Spearmans g?
general intelligence that is used in all cognitive tasks
What is Catell and Horn's view on intelligence?
fluid and crystallized intelligence
Fluid Intelligence- changing --> reasoning: memory, comprehension ( not set in stone)
crystallized intelligence- you know it or you don't : facts, vocabulary, deals with culture related things
What is Gardner's view on multiple intelligences?
- There are atleast 8 separate intelligences:
- Verbal, musical, spatial, logical/ mathematical, kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal and naturalistic.
What is Sternberg's view on intelligence?
- intelligence isnt just what's measured on tests, but there are social/ cultural components as well.
- Have to use what you have in order to be intelligent
Example: Sister was extremely smart in high school, she dropped out of school, Sternberg would say she's not intelligent
Whats the difference between ability grouping and flexible grouping?
- Ability Grouping- group students into classes according to their ability
- Ex: Kids with scores 80-100 group A scores with 60-80 group B
Flexible Grouping- group students within a class and constantly adjust groups to fit the varying needs of the students
What is an IEP?
individualized eduation program- school takes all people involved in SPED programs and lay out students current goals so they have documentation to know about the student
What is an LRE?
lease restrictive environment- putting the student in an environment where they can learn the most
What is multicultural education?
promotes equity in the schooling of all students
What is a culturally inclusive classroom?
eliminates the "isms" sexism, racism etc. while adapting the content and methods of instruction to meet the needs of all students
What is the difference between social class and socioeconomic status?
social class-arrangements of people in society as economic or cultural groups.
socioeconomic status- relative standing in the society based on income,power, background, and prestige
How does a child's SES relate to his/her achievement?
depending on their SES depends on their achievement in school. in lower SES cases, the child does not recieve proper education because it can not be afforded, where as higher SES children would recieve better education because it is affordable.
How do ethnic and racial differences relate to school achievement?
Some ethnic groups score lower than average regardless of test area. pattern where asian has highest academics, then whites, african americans, latino, and then american indians.
what is stereotype threat? What are some examples of stereotype threat in the classroom?
Stereotype threat- the extra emotional and cognitive burden that your performance in an academic situation might confirm a stereotype that others hold about you. Ex: husband told her friend that she was a terrible driver, then her friend began driving terribly. and girls are bad at math so they would in turn do bad in math when the boys are said to be good at math.
what is the difference between prejudice and discrimination?
- Prejudice- thinking
- Discrimination- behavior/ action
what are some examples of gender bias in the classroom? How can you reduce gender bias in the classroom?
stereotyped roles in books. do both gender roles in the lesson
what are some barriers to language that you might face in your classroom? (dialect, black vernacular english, bilibgualism)
allow the dialects and other languages but teach formal English as well
What is the goal of culturally inclusive classrooms?
to include all cultures and ethnic backgrounds in the content taught
what is culturally relevant pedagogy? What must students do in a culturally relevant pedagogy?
excellent teaching for students of color that includes academic success, developing/maintaing cultural competence and developing a critical consciousness to challenge the status quo.
What is resiliency? How can you foster resiliency in your students? What are the differences between resilient and non-resilient children?
Resiliency-the ability to adapt successfully in spite of difficult circumstances and threats to development
resilient classrooms are a safe and orderly environment
what is the principle of contiguity?
pairing a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus and over time to create a conditioned stimulus and conditioned response.---> pairing two things together to create a conditioned response
what is a stimulus? what is a response?
- Stimulus- an event that activates behavior
- Response- the observable reaction to a stimulus
what is classical conditioning? how does it differ from operant conditioning?
Classical conditioning- learned behavior occurs as a result of involuntary conditioning. the person is not taught but rather the learning happens naturally
Operant conditioning- where we learn to behave in certain ways. it involves the use of stimulus being added and removed to create reinforcement and punishment to create learning
Roles of : NS, US, UR, CS & CR
- Neutral Stimulus- something that elicits no response ( saying pavlov before the experiment no one would salivate)
- Unconditioned Stimulus- no need for training -- naturally connected to a response ( put the lemonade on your tongue, knowing its sour)
- Unconditioned Response- no need for training; the response is naturally a result for the US ( salivated, not being taught to salivate)
- Conditioned Stimulus- something that causes the response (learned through contiguity-- (everytime we hear Pavlov, we salivate)
- Conditioned Response- the response from the presentation of the CS (salivated)
What are antecedents, behaviors and consequences?
- Antecedents- the thing that causes the behavior to happen
- Behavior-what happens
- Consequence- happens after the behavior
What is the effect of reinforcement on behavior? What is the effect of punishment?
- reinforcement- increases the behavior
- Punishment- reduces the behavior
- Positive reinforcement- behavior is increased due to the presentation of a stimulus that follows the behavior-- rewards, praise, pay increase
- Negative reinforcement- behavior is increased due to the removal of an aversive stimulus following the behavior -- nagging, cying baby, restricted location
- Positive punishment- behavior decreases due to the presentation of an aversive stimulus that follows the behavior -- spanking, electric shock
- Negative punishment- behavior decreases due to the removal of something good -- lose phone privileges, lose recess time, grouded, fine/ lose tokens
reinforcement after every response
reinforcement after a set period of time
reinforcement after varying lengths of time
reinforcement after a set number of responses
reinforcement after a varying number of responses
What is cueing?
"noise level" verbal reminder the appropriate behavior--> saying noise level to the class
what is prompting?
nonverbal reminder of appropriate behavior --example: turn lights off when its too loud in the classroom
What is applied behavior analysis? What is an ABAB design and why would you use it?
the behavior to be changed is clearly specified and the current level is noted, and then specific interventions are done to correct the problem behavior.
ABAB design-- A-baseline and B-intervention
What is the Premack principle and how can it be used?
- a high probability behavior may serve as a reinforcer for a low probability behavior "Grandmas rule"
- not liking math worksheets but student likes playing oregon trail, had to complete math worksheet with 90% accuracy in order to play the game
What is functional behavior analysis and how does it differ from applied behavior analysis?
Functional behavior analysis-try to determine reason for the behavior by studying ABC. focus is on understanding WHY behavior occurred and finding ways to replace the WHY with positive behaviors.
Applied behavior analysis- application of behavioral learning principles to understand and change behavior
What is social learning theory and what is its main idea?
developed by Bandura- idea that we learn from observing others, paying attention to others
What things must be present in order for observational learning to occur?
must pay attention to aspects of the situation that will help us learn; in order to imitate must retain the information
Essay #1- My niece Harmony cries everytime she sees a big dog. Explain how she could have learned this behavior form a classical conditioning viewpoint. Be sure to use all parts of the classical conditioning process.
- NS- dog in movie/ tv scares the child
- US- barking/ loud noise
- UR- crying
- after constant dog becomes conditioned stimulus and crying becomes the conditioned response
Essay #2- Select one cultural/ diversity issue you might encounter in your classroom. Describe in detail how this issue affects the students education. What is one specific thing you could do to help this student succeed educationally?
Essay #3- Imagine you have a student in your classroom spending the majority of his/her time in off-task behavior. Conduct and ABC analysis on this student and plan an intervention to decrease the amount of off-task behavior and increase academic learning time.
Essay #4- The school that you work for is considering using standardized IQ tests to group students into classrooms based on ability because the administration believes intelligence is well measure by these tests and grouping students will improve their achievement. Respond to the administration with your opinion regarding their possible decision.
- Ability grouping- grouping students into classes based on ability-- students with scores from 80-100 group A 60-80 Group B
- Flexible grouping- group students within a class and constantly adjusting groups to fit the varying needs of the students. Works best**
Essay# 5- Discuss Gardner's view of intelligence compared to Sternbergs view of intelligence. Make sure to include atleast 3 components of each viewpoint. Which view do you think explains what intelligence is more thoroughly?
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences: "VINSMILK". Verbal, Intrapersonal, naturalistic, spatial, musical ,interpersonal, logical-mathematical, kinesthetic
- Sternberg- areas is gifted kids
- intelligence isnt just whats measured on tests but there are social/cultural components as well.
- 3 components- Analytical, creative/experimental, & practical/ contextual