Geography vocab

  1. Antarctic Circle
    66.5 degrees north
  2. Arctic Circle
    66.5 degrees south
  3. Conic projection
    • globe onto a cone
    • parallels are spaced evenly along the central meridian
  4. Contour interval
    vertical distance separating two adjacent contour line
  5. contour line
    line along which all points are of equal elevation above or below a datum (single) plane, usually indicating mean sea level
  6. Cylindrical projection
    • earth onto a cylinder
    • navigation uses
  7. gnomonic projections
    great circles appear as straight lines
  8. Lines of Latitude
    Run east-west. Measure distance N-S of equator. North and South Pole Highest points equator is lowest point
  9. Lines of Longitude
    Run north-south. Measure distance E-W of Prime Meridian. Highest (180 degrees)= International Date Line and Prime Meridian (0 degrees) is lowest.
  10. Planar
    globe grid onto a plane (used in atlases)
  11. Tropic of Cancer
    23.5 north
  12. Tropic of Capricorn
    23.5 south
  13. Chemical weathering
    breakdown by interaction of water and chemicals present in rock mass
  14. Continents
    Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antartica, Europe, and Australia/Oceania
  15. Faulting
    break in the earth's crust (tensional or normal fault) by irresistible forces in the crust
  16. Folding
    • intense bending of the earth's crust
    • produces accordion effect (anticlines and synclines)
    • leads to ridge and valley topography
  17. Glaciation
    movement of continental and alpine ice and snow that rubs and shapes topography
  18. Geomorphology
    study of landform origins, characteristics, and evolutions and their processes
  19. Gravity transfer
    force of gravity is the attraction of the earth's mass for bodies at or near its surface
  20. Igneous rocks
    formed by cooling and hardening of earth material
  21. Loess
    fine fertile soil that is transported by wind (in glaciated regions)
  22. Pacific Ring of Fire
    • series of volcanoes, Pacific ocean, active
    • 80% of the world's active
  23. Pangea
    • supercontinent 200 million years ago
    • Gondwana and Laurasia->todays continents
  24. Plate tectonic processes
    • portions of earth's mantle and crust on separate plates.
    • mountain building, volcanoes, and earthquakes
  25. Warping
    gentle bending of the earth's crust
  26. weathering
    breaking down rock mass into smaller particles
  27. Delta
    triangular soil deposit at teh mouth of a river
  28. Distributaries
    channels carrying water off the main stream of a river
  29. Mouth
    where a river empties into another body of water
  30. River basin
    area drained by a river system
  31. Tributaries
    small bodies of water that feed into the main stream of a river
  32. Air pressure
    weight of air as measured at a point on the earth's surface (barometric pressure)
  33. Air temperature
    • controlled by intensity/duration solar energy.
    • decreases with increasing elevation
  34. atmospheric moisture
    precipitation deposited on the earth's surface
  35. convection
    flow of air that replaces warm/rising air and the rapid movement of replacement air
  36. convectional precipitation
    caused by rising/heated/moisture-laden air
  37. cyclonic (frontal) precipitation
    occurs in mid-altitudes as cool and warm air masses meet
  38. ocean currents
    wind direction and differences in H2O density cause water to move in paths from one part of the oncean to another
  39. Orographic precipitation
    occurs as warm air is forced to rise because of some obstruction (hill or mountain)
  40. Pressure gradients
    differences in air pressure between areas that induce air to flow from areas of hight to areas of low pressure
  41. Wind belts
    prevailing surface wind movements responding to pressure gradients (jet stream, monsoon)
  42. Dry-summer subtropical
    Mild rainy winters; hot, dry summers. Warm climate, long growing season. Soil lacks humus. Veg. with large roots (chaparral/maquis) and small leaves. Summer drought.
  43. Humid continental
    middle of large landmasses in midlatitudes; long summer/short summer types; plenty moisture, cold winter, hot summer
  44. Humid subtropical
    soild-leached->acidic, southeast corner of large landmasses in middle latitudes, mild winters, hot, humid summers
  45. Ice cap
    constant cold, less than 10 inches of precip annually
  46. Steppe
    soils are chernozems, live stock grazing, thick black earth rick humus soil
  47. Demographic Transition Model
    traces the changing levels of human fertility and mortality over time. Gives a relationship between pop growth and eco development in stages
  48. Rate of natural increase
    CBR - CDR excluding effects of immigrat/emigr
Card Set
Geography vocab
Geography vocab