evaluations of schizophrenia

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  1. Positive/negative symptoms
    • No universal agreement about the distinction between the two
    • Term 'schizophrenia' is misleading. Likely that there are several types of severe mental disorder that we call schizophrenia.
  2. Genetic explanation
    • 46% concordance for MZ suggests genotype contributes
    • Twin studies have small samples
    • MZ twins are reared in more similar environments than DZ twins- cannot separate nature or nurture
    • Adoption studies support inheritance
  3. Neurochemical explanations
    • Unclear whether D2 receptors is a cause of schizophrenia or an effect of medication
    • Cause and effect problem throughout
    • Oversimplified
  4. Neuroanatomical explanations
    • Cause and effect
    • Fails to take into account environment
  5. Cognitive theories
    • Maher's model has provided a successful therapeutic model for delusions
    • Inadequate on their own to explain such a complex disorder
  6. Labelling theory
    • Only accounts for how symptoms are maintained
    • Ignores genetic evidence
    • Trivialises a serious disorder
  7. Family studies
    Cannot untangle cause and effect
  8. EE explanation
    • Unclear whether EE is the cause for relapse or a reaction to the individual's behaviour
    • Usually measured by one interview- cannot give an accurate picture of family interaction
  9. Drug treatment
    • Side effects are distressing
    • Not effective for negative symptoms
  10. SST
    • Doesn't always generalise to real life
    • Doesn't help with the associated distress
  11. CSE
    Usually a high drop out rate
  12. Cognitive therapy
    Research trials demonstrate a 40% reduction in psychotic symptoms
  13. Community care
    • Better quality of life
    • Services are often patchy and burden on family increases
    • Do fail- murder of Jonathan Zito
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evaluations of schizophrenia
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