1. Regarding the mechanics of ventilation, what is the neutral pressure in the lungs between breaths?
    760mm/HG or 1atm
  2. What term is used when describing the diaphragm contracting and descends into the abdominal cavity?
    Inspiration (active)
  3. What does the pressure drop down to in inspiration?
    755-757 mm/Hg
  4. What term describes when the diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax and air is exhaled from lungs?
    Expiration (passive)
  5. What does the pressure in the lungs increase to during expiration?
    763-765 mm/Hg
  6. What is the avgerage Tidal volume/breath?
  7. What primarily controls breathing?
    CO2 levels in the blood
  8. How is rate and depth of respiration increases in response to increased levels of CO2?
    Chemoreceptors in the Aortic Arch and cartoid sinuses
  9. What two things are considered secondary control of respiration?
    Chemoreceptors in the brain and periperheral nervous system sense in ventilartory drive
  10. What can factors including anemia, pain, strong emotion, and hypoperfusion do for ventilation?
  11. What are some signs and symptoms of Pulmonary disease?
    Coughing, dyspnea,tachypnea, cynosis and chest pain
  12. What is a primary assessment tool for pulmonary distress/disease?
    Arterial Blood Gases (ABG)
  13. What is usually measured in an Arterial blood sample?
    pH, PaOs, and PaCO2
  14. What does pH mean? What units is it measured?
    • Hydrogen Ion concentration
    • units
  15. What does PaO2 mean? What units is it measured in?
    • Arterial Partial Pressure of O2
    • mm/Hg
  16. What does PaCO2 mean? What units is it measured in?
    • Arterial Partial Pressure of CO2
    • mm/Hg
  17. What does HCO3? What units is it measured in?
    • Serum bicarbonite concentration
    • mEq/L
  18. What is the normal Hemoglobin (Hgb) range?
    12-18 g/dL and varies with age and gender
  19. What is central cynosis?
    Caused by arterial blood desaturation and present blue/gray discolorization in the gums, under tounge, nail beds, and ears.
  20. What is peripheral cynosis?
    Occurs due to vasoconstriction in peripheral vasculature which is caused by cold, anxiety, circulatory failure.
  21. What instrument is used for the non-invasive measurement of Arterial O2 Sats by means of infared and red light technology?
    Pulse Oximeter
  22. What are two exceptions for not receiving accurate O2 sats?
    • Carboxy Hemoglobin elevation (CO2 poisoning)
    • Methemoglobinemia (present in patients recevining Nitrates or Nitrites, or local anesthetics (Lidocaine)
  23. What O2 sats indicate mild to moderate Hypoxemia
    85-90% (PaO2 50 - 70 mm/Hg)
  24. What O2 sats indicate signifigant Hypoxemia?
    75-85% (PaO2 < 50mm/Hg)
  25. What O2 sats indication severe Hypoxemia?
    less than 75% (PaO2 < 40 mm/Hg)
  26. What is the normal range for Arterial Hydro Ion Concentration (pH)?
    7.35-7.45 units
  27. What is normal range for Arterial Partial Pressure CO2 (PaCO2)?
    35-45 mm/Hg
  28. What is the normal range for Arterial Partial Pressure O2 (PaO2)?
    80-100 mm/Hg
  29. What is the normal range of Serum Bicarb Concentration (HCO3)?
    22-26 mEq/L
  30. What happens in Hypoxia?
    Decrease of O2 pressure in the alveolus
  31. What happens in Hypoxemia?
    Decrease of O2 content in arterial blood
  32. What is the formula to determine PaO2?
    PaO2 = 104 - (0.27 x Patient Age)
  33. Pulmonary Edema, Hypoventilation, COPD, and CO poisoning are all causes of _______?
  34. What happens if pH < 7.35?
  35. What happens if pH > 7.45?
  36. In metabolic acidosis the HCO3 level _______.
  37. In metabolic Alkalosis, the HCO3 level ______.
  38. In respiratory acidosis, the CO2 levels ______.
  39. In respiratory alkalosis, the CO2 levels _______.
  40. If PaCO2 > 45, what is the result?
    Respiratory Acidosis
  41. PaCO2 < 35, what is the result?
    Respiratory Alkalosis
  42. If HCO3 > 22, what is the result?
    Metabolic Acidosis
  43. If HCO3 > 26, what is the result?
    Metabolic Alkalosis
  44. Renal failure, ASA overdose, and uncontrolled diarrhea are causes of ________.
    Metabolic acidosis
  45. Drug overdose, morbid obesity, pulmonary disease, and brain damage are causes of ______.
    Respiratory acidosis
  46. Sodium bicarb administration, excessive emisis, and hypokalemia are causes of ______.
    Metabolic alkalosis
  47. Anxiety, pain, and heart disease are causes of ______.
    Respiratory Alklosis
  48. What does Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure (PCWP) indicate?
    Left Atrial Pressure
  49. What does pressure gradiant between 2 systolic pressures indicate? Example: LV = 120 Ao = 80
  50. What are normal critcal values for the Right Atrium?
    • a = 2.5-7mm/Hg
    • v= 2-7.5mm/Hg
    • Mean = 0-8mm/Hg
  51. What are normal critical values of the Right Ventricle?
    • Systolic = 15-25mm/Hg
    • Diastolic = 8-15mm/Hg
    • EDP = 0-8mm/Hg
  52. What are normal critical values of Pulmonary Artery?
    • Systolic = 15-25mm/Hg
    • Diastolic = 8-15mm/Hg
    • Mean = 18mm/Hg
  53. Are are crictial values of Wedge (PCWP)?
    • a = 4-16mm/Hg
    • v = 6-21mm/Hg
    • Mean = 4-12mm/Hg
  54. What are critical values of the Aorta?
    • Systolic = 100-130
    • Diastolic = 60-90
    • Mean = 85
  55. What are critical values of O2 Difference?
    30-50 volume %
  56. What is the critical value of Cardiac Output?
    4.0-8.0 L/min
  57. How is the critical value of Cardiac Index?
    2.6-4.6 L/min/m2
  58. What are the critical values of PUlmonary Vascular Resistance (PVR)?
    10-130 dynes/sec/cm-2
  59. What are the critical values of Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)?
    700-1600 dynes/sec/cm-2
  60. What is the difference between Rales and Bronchi?
    Rales are crackling and Bronchi is wheezing
  61. What can make a PulseOx reading inaccurate?
    • Nailpolish
    • LED and detector oppose each other (not in line)
    • Cold fingers
Card Set
First Test review