Government Final Exam

  1. Externalities
    Cost imposed of people who are not direct participants in an activity.

    Example: A junkyard that creates an eyesore makes life less pleasant for neighbors and passerby.
  2. Democracy
    Governing system in which the people govern themselves, from the Greek term meaning “rule by the many.”

    Example: U.S. Goverment
  3. Republic
    Government by representatives of the people rather than directly by the people themselves.

    Example: We vote for our representatives.
  4. Paradox of Democracy
    Potential for conflict between individual freedom and majority rule.
  5. Classical Liberism
    Political philosophy asserting the worth and dignity of the individual and emphasizing the rational ability of human beings to determine their own destinies.
  6. Equality of Opportunity
    Elimination of artificial barriers to success in life and the opportunity for everyone to strive for success.
  7. Equality of Results
    Equal sharing of income and material goods regardless of one’s efforts in life.

    Example: communistic idea.
  8. Annapolis Convention
    A 1786 meeting at Annapolis, Maryland, to discuss interstate commerce, that recommended a larger convention - the constitutional convention of 1787.
  9. Three-Fifths Compromise
    A compromise in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 between free and slave states in which slaves would be counted as three-fifth of a person for both taxation and representation.
  10. Federalism
    A constitutional arrangement whereby power is divided between national and sub-national governments, each of which enforces its own laws directly in its and neither of which can alter the arrangement without the consent of the other.
  11. Prior Restrain
    Government actions to restrict publication of a magazine, newspaper, or books on grounds of libel, obscenity, or other legal violations prior to actual publication of the work.
  12. Sullivan Rule
    Court guideline that false and malicious statements regarding public officials are protected by the First Amendment unless it can be proven they were known to be false at the time they were made or were made with “reckless disregard” for their truth or falsehood.
  13. Libel
    Writings that are false and malicious and are intended to damage an individual.
  14. Slander
    Oral statements that are false and malicious and are intended to damage an individual.
  15. Federalists
    Those who support the U.S. Constitution during the ratification process and who later formed a political party in support of John Adam’s presidential candidacy.
  16. Electoral College
    The 538 presidential electors apportioned among the states according to their congressional representation whose votes officially elect the president and vice president of the United States.
  17. Impeachment
    Formal charges of wrongdoing brought against a government official, resulting in a trial and, upon conviction, removal from office.
  18. Executive Privilege
    Right of a president to withhold from other branches of government confidential communications within the executive branch; although posited by presidents, it has been upheld by the Supreme Court only in limited situations.
  19. Executive Order
    Formal regulation governing executive branch operations issued by the president.
  20. Judicial Review
    Power of the courts, especially the Supreme Court, to declare laws of Congress, laws of the states, and actions of the president unconstitutional and invalid.
  21. Original Intent
    Judicial philosophy under which judges attempt to apply the values of the Founders to current issues.
  22. Affirmative Action
    Any program, whether enacted by a government or by a private organization, whose goal is to overcome the results of past unequal treatment of minorities and women by giving members of these groups preferential treatment in admissions, hiring, promotion, or other aspects of life.
  23. Lemmon Test
    To be constitutional, a law must have a secular purpose; its primary effect must neither advance nor inhibit religion; and it must not foster excessive government entanglement with religion.

    Example: 1st amendment
  24. Magna Carta
    A document guaranteeing their feudal rights and setting the precedent of a limited goverment and monarchy.
  25. Articles of Confederation
    The US under the Articles was really a confederation of nations. Within this "firm league of friendship, the national goverment was thought od as an alliance of independent states, not as a govermenet" of the people.
  26. Enumerated Powers
    Powers specifically mentioned in the Constitution as belonging to the national goverment.
  27. Implied Powers
    Powers not mentioned specifically in the Constitution as belonging to Congress but inferred as necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated powers.
  28. Anti-Federalists
    Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution, who later coalesced into a political party supporting Thomas Jefferson for president in 1800.
  29. Unitary System
    Constitutional arrangement whereby authority rests with the national goverment; subnational goverments have only those powers given to them by the national goverment.
  30. Confederation
    Constitutional arrangement whereby the national goverment is created by and relies on subnational goverments for its authority.
  31. 14th Amendment
    • Citizenship
    • Due Process of Law
    • Equal Protection Clause
  32. 15th Amendement
    The right to vote for any male.
  33. 19th amendment
    The right to vote without race mattering.
  34. Supreme Court Justices
    • John Roberts
    • Samuel Alito
    • Stephen Breyer
    • Ruth Bader Ginsburg
    • Elena Kagan
    • Anthony Kennedy
    • Antonin Scalia
    • Sonia Sotomayor
    • Clarence Thomas
  35. Functions of the President
    • Commander in Chief
    • Respond to Impeachement
    • Appoint his Cabinet
  36. Functions of Congress
    • To stablish a post office
    • To borrowm money on the credit of the US
    • To regulate commerce with other nations
  37. Bill of Rights
    Written guarantees of basic individual liberties; the first ten amendments to the US Constitution.
  38. First Amendement of bill of rights
    • Freedom of:
    • Religion
    • Speech
    • Press
    • Assembly
    • Petition
  39. Habeas Corpus
    Court order directing public officials who are holding a person in custody to bring the prisioner into court and explain the reasons for confinement; the right to habeas corpus is protected by article 1 of the constitution.
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Government Final Exam
Review for government final exam