Nutrition Chapter 5

  1. Lipids
    a family of compounds that includes triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. Lipids are characterized by their insolubility in water. Lipids also include the fat-soluble vitamins.
  2. Fats
    Lipids that are solid at room temperature. 77 F 25 C
  3. Oils
    Lipids that are liquid at room temperature. 77 F 25 C
  4. Linoleic Acid
    an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and two double bonds.
  5. Linolenic Acid
    an essential fatty acid with 18 carbons and three double bonds.
  6. Omega
    the last lettter of the Greek alphabet used by chemists to refer to the position of the first double bond from the methyl CH3 end of a fatty acid.
  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid
    a polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is three carbons away from the Methyl CH3 end of the carbon chain.
  8. Omega-6 Fatty Acid
    a polyunsaturated fatty acid in which the first double bond is six carbons from the methyl CH3 end of the carbon chain.
  9. Triglycerides
    the chief form of fat in the diet and the major storage form of fat in the body, composed of a molecule of glycerol with three fatty acids attached, also called triglycerols.
  10. Tri
  11. glyceride
    of glycerol
  12. Acly
    a carbon chain
  13. Glycerol
    an alcohol composed of a three-carbon chain, which can serve as the backbone for a triglyceride.
  14. ol
  15. Oxidation
    the process of a substance combining with oxygen, oxidation reactions involve the loss of electrons.
  16. Antioxidants
    as a food additive, preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen.
  17. Hydrogenation
    a chemical process by which dydrogens are added to monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids to reduce the number of double bonds, making the fats more saturated (solid) and more resistant to oxidation. Hydrogenation produces trans-fatty acids.
  18. Trans-Fatty Acids
    fatty acids with hydrogens on opposite sides of the double bond.
  19. Conjugated linoleic Acid
    a collective term for several fatty acids that have the came chemicfal formula as linoleic acids (18 carbons and two double bonds) but with different configurations.
  20. Phospholipid
    a compound similar to a triglyceride but having a phosphate group (a phosphorus-containing salt) and choline (or another nitrogen-containing compound) in place of one of the fatty acids.
  21. Lecithin
    one of the phopholipids. Both nature and the food industry use lecithin as an emulsifier to combine water-soluble and fat-soluble ingredients that do not ordinarily mix such as water and oil.
  22. Choline
    a nitrogen containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methionine. Choline is part of the phopholipid lecithin and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
  23. Sterols
    compounds containing a four ring carbon structure with any of a variety of side chains attatched.
  24. Cholesterol
    One of the sterols containing a four ring carbon structure with a carbon side chain.
  25. Atherosclerosis
    a type of artery disease characterized by placques(accumulations of lipid-containing material) on the inner walls of the arteries.
  26. Hydrophobic
    a term referring to water fearing, or non water soluble substances also know as lipophilic(fat loving)
  27. Lipo
  28. Phile
  29. Hydrophilic
    a term referring to water loving or water soluble substance.
  30. Monoglycerides
    molecules of glycerol with one fatty acid attached. A molecule of glycerol with two fatty acids attached is a diglyceride.
  31. mono
  32. Di
  33. Micelles
    tiny spherical complexes of emulsified fat that arise during digestion, most contain bile salts and the products of lipid digestion, including fatty acids, monoglycerides, and cholesterol.
  34. Chylomicrons
    the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body.
  35. Lipoproteins
    cluster of lipids associated with proteins that serve as transport vehicles for lipids in the lymph and blood.
  36. VLDL
    Very low density lipoprotein-the type of lipoprotein made primarily by the liver cells to transport lipids to various tissues in the body, composed primarily of triglycerides.
  37. LDL
    Low density lipoprotein-the type of lipoprotein derived from very low density lipoproteins VLDL as VLDL triglycerides are removed and broken down, composed primarily of cholesterol.
  38. HDL
    High density lipoprotein-the type of lipoprotein that transports cholesterol back to the liver from the cells, composed primarily of protein.
  39. Essential Fatty Acids
    fatty acids needed by the body but not made by it in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs.
  40. Arachidonic Acid
    an omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and four double bonds, present in small amounts in meat and other animal products and synthesized in the body from linoleic acid.
  41. Eicosapentaenoic Acid
    EPA- an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 20 carbons and five double bonds, present in fish and synthesized in limited amounts in the body from linolenic acid.
  42. Docosahexaenoic Acid
    DHA-an omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid with 22 carbons and six double bonds, present in fish and synthesized in limited amoundts in the body from linolenic acid.
  43. Eicosanoids
    derivatives of 20 carbon fattty acids, biologically actibe compounds that help to regulate blood pressure, bloods clotting and other body functions they include: Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
  44. Adipose Tissue
    the body's fat tissue, consits of masses of triglyceride storing cells
  45. Lipoprotein Lipase
    LPL- an enzyme that hydrolyzes triglycerides passing by in the bloodstream and directs their parts into the cells, where they can be metabolized for energy or reassembled for storage.
  46. Hormone Sensitive Lipase
    an enzyme inside adipose cells that responds to the body's need for fuel by hydrolyzing triglycerides so that their parts escape into the general circulation and thus become available to the other cells for fuel. The signals to which this enzyme responds include epinephrine and glucagon, which oppose insulin.
  47. Blood Lipid Profile
    results of blood tests that reveal a person's total choleterol, tryiglycerides and various lipoproteins.
  48. Cardiovascular Disease
    CVD-a general term for all diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of CVD. When the arteries that carry blood to the heart muscle become blocked, the heart suffers damage known as coronary heart disease CHD
  49. Cardio
  50. Vascular
    blood vessels
  51. Fat Replacers
    ingredients that replace some or all of the functions of fat and may or may not provide energy.
  52. Artificial Fats
    zero energy fat replacers that are chemically synthesized to mimic the sensory and cooking qualiteis of naturally occuring fats but are totally or partially resistand to digestion.
  53. Olestra
    a synthetic fat made from sucrose and fatty acis and provides 0 kcalories per gram, also know as sucrose ployester.
Card Set
Nutrition Chapter 5
Chapter 5 key terms