Cerebral Cortex S2M1

  1. Sulci enlargement can cause what clinical symptoms
    • Major memory loss
    • Inability to learn new things
    • Impaired language functions
    • Depression
  2. What does a WADA test consist of
    Hemispheres are put to sleep independent of each other by putting drugs into the carotid arteries. The hemisphere is then tested with the patient awake through a series of questions.
  3. Neural stimulation test
    With the patient awake and the brain revealed, areas of the brain are turned off to determine their significance
  4. Heterotropia
    Grey matter being in the wrong place in the brain, epilepsy almost always accompanies
  5. Subependymal heterotopia
    Grey matter right next to the ventricle (most common heterotopia) epilepsy is usually present
  6. Subcortical heterotopia
    Grey matter is found in the white matter, neurological profiles are often severe and have epilepsy
  7. Band heterotopia
    "Double Crotex" found between the lateral ventricle and cortex, varies from normal to severe, epilepsy present
  8. Neocortex
    This is the outer layer of the cortex when all six layers are present (90% of the brain)
  9. Allocortex
    Portions of the cortex made of only 3 layers instead of the normal 6. Only 10% of the brain is like this. It is found in the olfactory cortex and hippocampus
  10. All of the cortical layers are organized around what layer
    The 4th layer
  11. What cell types are found inlayers III and V
    • Mainly pyramidal cells
    • Efferent Neurons
  12. 80% of the cortex is made up of what type cells, containing what type of neurons
    Pyramidal which contain Efferent and Association neurons
  13. What is the main cell type of the fourth layer of the cortex
    Stellate or granule cells (Interneurons)
  14. What layers are the supragranular layers of the cortex and what cortex are they found in predominantly
    • Layers I, II, III,
    • These connect to other areas of the cortex and are most prominant in the associative cortex
  15. The granular layer is what layer, receives input from where, and most commonly found in what cortex
    • IV
    • Thalamus
    • Most prominant in the primary sensory cortex
  16. What are the infragranular layers
    Layers V and VI, they connect to the subcortical regions
  17. Layer V of the cortex sends signals to, and is most prominant where
    • Basal ganglia, brain stem and spinal cord
    • It is most prominant in the motor cortex
  18. Layer VI send output to
  19. Cortical thinning is observed in cases of
    Depression, schizophrenia, low birth weight, post tramatic stress disorder, ....
  20. Alzheimers disease is found early and then later in what layers of the cortex
    • Early; II-IV
    • Later; V-VI
  21. When do the Longitudinal, Sylvian, and Transverse fissures develop
    By week 22
  22. When do the secondary and tertiary sulci develop
    • 2nd: 32 weeks
    • 3rd: Last month of gestation
  23. Where and when does the myelination of the cortex start and end
    • Starts in utero in the motor cortex
    • Ends between 20-25 yrs old in the frontal lobes
  24. Synaptic plasticity
    Unused neurons disappear while active neurons connect and consolidate
  25. Adult neurogenesis happens where and can be affected by what
    • Happens in the hippocampus and olfactory bulbs
    • Stress limits it while exercise stimulates
  26. Miller-Dieker syndrome
    • Neuronal migration disorder
    • Delayed development
    • Absence of sulci/gyri
    • 4 cortical layers instead of 6
    • Lissencephaly
  27. Lissencephaly
    • Smooth brain
    • Absence of Sulci/Gyri
  28. Schizencephaly
    Abnormal pattern of sulcal and gyral development
  29. Association fibers in the cortex travel how
    Ipsilateral hemisphere, not to another hemisphere
  30. Commissural fibers in the cortex travel how
    Between hemispheres
  31. Projection fibers in the cortex travel how
    Outside of the cortex, (cranial nerves)
  32. Unimodal vs Heteromodal
    Unimodal is higher order processing in the cortex for a single sensory or motor modality, Hetero is multiple sensory and or motor modalities
  33. Hemineglect syndrome
    Neglect is shown for the contralateral aspects of a patients world and they don't realize that anything is wrong. Effects are usually caused by lesions in the right parietal or frontal lobe
  34. Broca's Area
    • Portion of the cortex responsible for speech production, it is found close to the motor areas usually on the left lobe
    • BA 44 and 45
    • "Broca'n Speech"
  35. Wernicke's area
    • Portion of the cortex that is responsible for the speech comprehension and is found close to the auditory areas between the temporal and parietal portions of the left lobe
    • BA 22
  36. Angular gyrus
    • Location of reading and semantic processing in the inferior parietal lobe
    • BA 39
  37. Supramarginal gyrus
    • Location of phonological and articulatory processing in the inferior parietal lobe
    • BA 40
  38. Where in the cortex does one normally control the inflections of their voice
    In the non-dominant hemisphere normally the right
  39. The intergration of social clues, Pragmatism (straight forward talk like, "get me water"), and metaphoric ideas are processed where
    Normally in the right hemisphere
  40. When does one develop semantic processing (understanding complete meanings of words)
    12 months old
  41. When does one develop the ability to put words together in a meaningful way (syntactic processing)
    30 months old
  42. What is the differnce in damage to the language area of the brain between children and adults
    Children are more likely able to recover because it isn't fixed to a certain location in the brain yet
  43. When is the easiest time for someone to learn a second language
    • Before puberty, it becomes effortless then
    • This is true for both sign and spoken languages
  44. How can learning another language be healthy
    It appears to be neuroprotective against dementia, stroke, ect.
  45. What happens to someone with Broca's aphasia
    • They are unable to create grammatically-complex sentences
    • Often meaningful and accurate content
    • Patients are aware of the impairment
    • Comprehension is preserved
  46. What happens in a patient with Wernickes aphasia
    • They have poor comprehension
    • Poor semantic content: vague meaningless
    • Grammar is preserved
  47. Anomic aphasia
    Naming is impaired
  48. Conduction aphasia
    • Lesion of arcuate fasciculus
    • Naming is impaired
    • Repetition is impaired
  49. Global aphasia is due to a lesion where
    • Lesion on either in the thalamus, internal capsule, and/or basal ganglia
    • All language functions are impaired
  50. Semantic Pragmatic disorder
    • Lesion to right hemisphere affecting language
    • Autism
  51. Dysexecutive syndrome
    • Often as a result of a car accident or traumatic brain injury
    • Severe handicap in everyday life (shopping, looking before crossing the street)
  52. Attention to a specific task is controlled via
    • Anterior cingulate cortex
    • Prefrontal cortex
    • Precentral sulcus
  53. Where is memory controlled
    • Frontal cortex
    • Parietal cortex
    • Anterior Cingulate cortex
    • Basal Ganglia
Card Set
Cerebral Cortex S2M1