Psych: exam 3

  1. Learning theory
    what can be measured and observed
  2. Observational learning (Bandura)
    what you see is what you do (models BoBo the Clown doll)
  3. Instrumental learning (Thorndike)
    behavior based on the type of consequences
  4. Operant conditioning
    reward and punishment
  5. Classical conditioning (Pavlov)
  6. Generalization
    fear anything furry and moved
  7. Discrimination
    fear white rat only
  8. Extinction
    if not traumatic, doesn't have effect
  9. Spontaneous recovery
    after being extinct, present UCS and it comes back quickly and strong.
  10. Thorndike:
    learning=behavior + consequences
  11. Jones:
    first behavior therapist
  12. B.F. Skinner
    father of operant conditioning; behavior related to external conditions
  13. Operant conditioning
    • voluntary
    • response–stimulus
    • reinforcement/punishment
  14. target behavior
    behavior that is desired
  15. positive reinforcement
  16. negative reinforcement
    take away something, increases productivity
  17. positive punishment
    add something, decreases behavior
  18. negative reinforcement
    take away something, decreases productivity
  19. Interval schedule
    clock time (type of measurement of time)
  20. Ratio schedule
    rewarded for action
  21. Schedules of reinforcement:
    • Fixed: consistent
    • Variable: variation of change
  22. What is a powerful operant?
    Positive reinforcement, variable ratio schedule
  23. Shaping
    go from a fixed to a variable schedule, reinforcing to the selected goal or target behavior
  24. Thinning
    reducing the reinforcement based on a fixed interval/ratio or variable interval/ratio schedule; eventually eliminates the reinforcer
  25. Types of reinforcers:
    • Primary: biological/material things AND MONEY
    • Secondary: verbal congrats
  26. Pros of Operant conditioning
    • external motivation
    • helps guide behavior
    • controls
    • teaches behaviors that aren't innate
    • sets limits for a society, group, and social situation
    • consistent from one setting to another
  27. Cons of Operant conditioning
    • may do behaviors for the wrong reason
    • can learn disruptive/destructive behavior
    • stimulus effects wear off
    • expects to be rewarded all the time
    • external motivation for everything we do
    • lack of initiative and creativity
  28. Entrinsic motivation
    external reasons
  29. Intrinsic motivation
    internal reasons
  30. Instinct
    known from birth
  31. Drives
    state of tension or arousal due to need
  32. 3 theories of motivation
    • Instinct: innate tendencies
    • Drive: need to reduce and internal state of tension
    • Arousal: need to maintain optimal level of arousal
  33. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
    • Physiological
    • safety
    • belonging
    • esteem
    • actualization
  34. Alfred Kinsey
    sex researcher of the 1940s-'50s; researched male and female sexual behavior
  35. coitus
    intercourse between male and female, penis to vagina
  36. erogenous zones
    touch spots (doesn't have to be genitalia) that cause arousal
  37. sadist
    likes to inflict pain
  38. masochist
    likes to get pain
  39. cunnilingus
    "eating out" gender doesn't matter
  40. fellatio
  41. Kinsey scale of sexuality
    • 0-1: heterosexual
    • 1-2: heterosexual, experimental
    • 3: bisexual (have no preference AT ALL)
    • 4-5: homosexual, experimental
    • 5-6: homosexual
  42. Masters and Johnson's sexual response cycle
    • 1) excitement (arousal)
    • 2) plateau (stats hit peak of sexual tension)
    • 3) orgasm (male faster than women)
    • 4) resolution
    • refractory period (males need time between orgasms)
  43. Syphilis
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (bacterial) kanker on genitals; can go away, but still be in system, eats tissue
  44. Gonorrhea
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (bacterial) pussy discharge from urine
  45. Chlamydia
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (bacterial) cause pelvic inflammatory disease, damage urinary tract or sex organs
  46. Venereal Herpes
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (viral) painful blisters on genitalia
  47. Venereal warts (HPV)
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (viral) warts that can cause cervical cancer in women
  48. HIV–AIDS
    (bacterial or viral?)
    (viral) immune system is literally broken down
  49. Can any age have sex?
    Yes, as long as you are fit
  50. Can science show if porn is bad or not?
  51. What is necessary for sex?
    Brain!!! (or else no fantasy, love, experience, etc.)
  52. Emotions
    physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation, and behavioral expression
  53. James-Lang emotion theory
    emotion provoking stimulus physiological response that in turn produce emotion
  54. Cannon-Bard emotion theory
    emotional feeling and internal physiological responses occur at same time due to cognitive appraisal
  55. Two factor emotion theory
    cognitive appraisal of a physiological response and the provoking stimuli; can change perspective on things
  56. Emotional intelligence
    higher of this means you're really good at reading people
  57. stress
    response to perceptions and assessment to the environment
  58. Distress
    bad stress
  59. Eustress
    good stress
  60. Hans Seyle
    General adaptation syndrome: psychological stress breaks down immune system
  61. Locus of control (who is scientist?)
    • (Rotter)
    • Internal: live based on abilities
    • External: live based on luck
  62. Cognitive appraisal
    great way to reduce stress; change the way you think
  63. Fear of Success and/or Failure
    won't succeed because of high expectations; won't succeed because you don't try in a fear of failure
  64. Coping methods
    • adapting
    • time management
    • control
    • effective communication
  65. Type A personality
    immune system problems; tends to use more drugs and alcohol, eats worse, unhealthy
  66. Type B personality
    takes things in stride
  67. Social readjustment rating scale
    weights things based on causes of stress and predicts illnesses
  68. Hassle inventory
    like social readjustment rating scale, but uses hassles in life
Card Set
Psych: exam 3