Chapter 7 (50-76)

  1. Insertion
    The additon of one or more bases to DNA, usually producing a frameshift mutation.
  2. Intron
    Region of a gene (or mRNA) in eukaryotic cells that does not code for a protein
  3. Lagging strand
    The new strand of DNA formed in short, discontinuous DNA segments during DNA replication
  4. Ligase
    An enzyme that joins together DNA segments
  5. Light Repair
    Repair of DNA dimer by a light-activated enzyme.
  6. Locus
    The location of a gene on a chromosome
  7. messenger RNA
    • (mRNA)
    • a type of RNA that carries the information from DNA to dictate the arragement of amino acids in a protein
  8. Mutagen
    An agent that increases the rate of mutations
  9. Mutation
    A permanent alteration in an organism's DNA
  10. Nonsense Codon
    A set of three bases in a gene (or mRNA) that does not code for an amino acid
  11. Okazaki Fragment
    One of the short, discontinuous DNA segments formed on the lagging strand during DNA replication.
  12. Operon
    A sequence of closely associated genes that includes both structural genes and regulatory sites that control transcription
  13. Phenotype
    The specific observable characteristics displayed by an organism
  14. Photoreactivation
  15. Point Mutation
    Mutation in which one base is substituted for another at a specific location in a gene
  16. Polymerace chain reaction

    a technique that rapidly produces a billion or more identical copies of a DNA fragment without needing a cell.
  17. Polyribosome
    A long chain of ribosomes attached a t different points along an mRNA molecule
  18. Prototroph
    A normal, nonmutant organism
  19. Radiation
    Light rays, such as x-rays and ultraviolet rays, tht can act as mutagens
  20. Regulator Gene
    Gene that controls the expression of structural genes of an operon through the synthesis of a repessor protein.
  21. Regulatory Site
    The promoter and operator regions of an operon
  22. Riplication Fork
    A site at which the two strands of the DNA double helix separate during replication and new complementary DAN strands form
  23. Repressor
    In an operon it is the protein that binds to the operator, thereby preventing transcription of adjacent genes
  24. Restriction Endonuclease
    An enzyme that cuts DNA at precise base sequences
  25. Reverse Transcription
    An enzyme found in retroviruses that copies RNA into DNA
  26. Ribosomal RNA
    • (rRNA)
    • A type of RNA that, together with specific proteins, makes up the ribosomes.
  27. RNA polymerase
    An enzyme that binds to one strand of exposed DNA during transcription and catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from the DNA template
Card Set
Chapter 7 (50-76)
Chapter 7 Voc part 2