PSY ch2

  1. Neuron
    a nerve cell
  2. Cell Body
    Life support center of the neuron.
  3. Dendrites
    • Branching extensions at the cell body.
    • Receives messages from other neurons.
  4. Axon
    • Long single extension of a neuron, covered with myelin sheath.
    • Messages pass to other neurons, muscles, or glands.
  5. myelin sheath
    speeds up messages through neurons
  6. Terminal Branches of axon
    Branched endings of an axon that transmit messages to other neurons.
  7. Threshold
    the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
  8. All-or-None Response
    A strong stimulus can trigger more neurons to fire, and to fire more often, but it does not affect the action potentials strength or speed.
  9. Intensity
    of an action potential remains the same throughout the length of the axon.
  10. Synapse
    a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
  11. Neurotransmitters
    Chemincal messengers that cross the synaptic gaps sending neurons.
  12. Reuptake
    a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron.
  13. How Neurotransmitters Influence Us
    Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation.
  14. Acetylcholine
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • enables muscle action, learning, and memory
    • Ex. Alzheimers disease.
  15. Dopamine
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion.
  16. Serotonin
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • Affects mood, hunger, slee, and arousal.
  17. Norepinephrine
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • Helps control alertness and arousal.
  18. GABA
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • A major inhibitory neurotransmitter.
  19. Glutamate
    • (Neurotransmitter)
    • A major excitatory nurotransmitter.
    • Involved in memory
  20. Agonist
    Mimics neurotransmitters
  21. Antagonists
    Blocks neurotransmitters.
  22. Nervous System
    • It is the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system.
    • Consists of all the nerve cells of peripheral and central nervous system.
  23. Central Nervous System
    the brain and spinal cord.
  24. Peripheral Nervous System
    the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body.
  25. Somatic Nervous System
    The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles.
  26. Autonomic Nervous System
    Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles.
  27. Sympathetic Nervous System
    Division of the ANS that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
  28. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    Division of the ANS that calms the body, conserving its energy.
  29. Sensory Neurons
    Carry incoming info from the sense receptors to the brain and spinal cord(CNS).
  30. Motor Neurons
    Carry outgoing info from the brain & spinal cord (CNS) to muscles and glands.
  31. Interneuron
    • connect the two neurons (sensory & motor)
    • Neurons within the brain & spinal cord that communicate internally & intervene between the sensory inputs & motor inputs.
  32. nerves
    Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles glands and sense organs.
  33. Endocrine System
    • The body's "slow" chemical communication system
    • A set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  34. Hormones
    Chemical messengers that are manufactured by the encocrine glands, travel throught the bloodstream & affect other tissues.
  35. Pituitary Gland
    • Is called the “master gland.”
    • The endocrine system's most influential gland
    • Releases hormones that influence growth.
  36. Thyroid gland
    affects metabolism
  37. Parathyroid gland
    Helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
  38. Adrenal Glands
    A pair of endocrine glands that sit jst above the kidneys and secrete hormones (epinephrine & norepinephrine) that help aourse the body in times of stress.
  39. Gonads
    • They regulate bodily development and maintain reproductive organs in adults.
    • Sex glands are located in different places in men and women.
  40. Brainstem
    • the oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells and enters the skull.
    • It is responsible for automatic survival functions.
  41. Medulla
    is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
  42. Reticular Formation
    Formation is a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
  43. Thalamus
    • is the brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem.
    • It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla.
  44. Cerebellum
    The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem. It helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance.
  45. lesion
    tissue destruction
  46. Electroencephalogram (EEG)
    An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
  47. PET Scan
    a visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a given task.
  48. MRI Scan
    a technique that uses magnetic fields & radio waves to produce computer-generated images of sort tissue.
  49. Limbic System
    a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex
  50. Amygdala
    consists of two lima bean-sized neural clusters in the limbic system, linked to the emotions of fear and anger.
  51. Hypothalamus
    • It directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions.
    • It helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.
  52. cerebral cortex
    The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing center.
  53. Frontal lobes
    • (forhead)
    • Receives sensory input for touch & body position
  54. Pariental lobe
    (top to rear head)
  55. occipital lobe
    • (back head)
    • Includes areas that recive info from the visual fields.
  56. temporal lobe
    • (side of head)
    • Includes the auditory areas, each receiving info primarily from the opposite ear.
  57. Motor Cortex
    area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control voluntary movements.
  58. Sensory Cortex
    • (parietal cortex)
    • receives information from skin surface and sense organs.
  59. Aphasia
    impairment of language
  60. Broca’s area
    impaired speaking
  61. Wernicke’s area
    impaired understanding
  62. Plasticity
    refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness.
  63. Split brain
    a condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brains two hemispheres by cutting the fibers connecting them.
  64. Corpus callosum
    the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemisphere & carrying msgs between them.
Card Set
PSY ch2
The biology of mind