When was the economic depression (wall street crash)?
Why did the wall street crash effect other countries so harshly?
It was based in the USA. Due to the Dawes plan, the USA was giving out money to many other countries, because the crash happened in the US market, they received less money and etc. (domino impact).
Over in Germany, what did the economic depression lead to?
The election of Hitler whom promised to solve economic and social problems (provide jobs etc.)
What did Japan do when it was hit by the economic depression?
It invaded Manchuria (China)
What did Italy do due to the economic depression?
Mussolini built an overseas empire, in order to take the focus of economic downfall away from the people.
Worldwide, what did the economic depression do? (4)
- It created more tension between countries.
- It stopped a lot of trade between countries.
- It led to political changes within countries.
- Overall, optimism in countries was flattened.
What was Japan like before the depression? (In terms of country interest) (3)
- It had a very powerful army and navy
- It had a strong industry, with strong trade routes with China and USA
- It had a growing empire
Why did the Japanese invade Manchuria (China)?
They were severely stricken by the depression, so they decided to expand their empire by force.
How did Japan take over Manchuria?
As the Japanese were already in charge of the South Machurian railway, they made claims that the Chinese had sabotaged the railway. They retalliated this attack by invading Manchuria and creating it's own governement there. China appealed to the league but Japan claimed it was not the aggressor.
What did the LON do in the case of Manchuria?
They took 1 whole year in order to decide (very slow), and announced that Manchuria should be returned to China. Japan disagreed. The decision was taken to the assembly where Japan was the only to disagree in a vote. Japan resigned and invaded more of China.
Why did the LON lose the case of Manchuria?
Their sanctions weren't effective (especially without the USA). Their armies weren't powerful enough, and most countries were too scared to attack Japan, incase they retaliated.
What did the loss of Manchuria influence in years to come?
The uprising of Italy and Germany.
Why was Mussolini interested in Abyssinia?
His army had been defeated by their poorly equipped army in the past, and the land was good for mining.
What was the 'Stresa Pact'?
An agreement between Mussolini and the LON to promise to defend each other from Germany.
What did the people want the LON to do in the case of Abyssinia?
The people wanted the LON to protect Abyssinia, by using military force if needed.
What did the LON do when Mussolini invaded Abyssinia?
They banned arm sales to Italy.
What made it hard for the LON to apply sanctions?
Due to the recent economic depression, applying economic sanctions would affect other places as well. Thus making some options unavailable.
What caused the LON to fail in the case of Abyssinia?
Not enough sanctions were enforced on Italy, allowing them to continue easily. Both Britain and France had conjured a secret plan (the Hoare-Laval Pact), aiming to give Mussolini 2/3's of Abyssinia as long as he stopped the attack. This pact was leaked to the press, destroying the people's view of the LON.
Which agreement was signed because of the failure of the Abyssinian crisis?
The Rome - Berlin Axis. Between Mussolini and Hitler.
Overall, why did the LON fail in the 1930's? (6)
- Too much self interest by it's members - Britain and France. Although they were the mos powerful members, none would agree to anything if it wasn't beneficial to their country.
- The USA and other important countries were missing - without these countries, problems were not powerfully supported and thus ineffective.
- Lack of troops - Both Britain and France would not submit troops. Relied upon cooperation between countries, this was disputable and slow.
- Economic sanctions did not work - again because USA was not a member, and as they were a powerful trading nation, economic sanctions could not work effectively.
- Treaties were unfair - LON had to follow these treaties and failed to amend them.
- Decisions were slow - faulted by the structure of the league. and also their inability to make decisions.