bio exam

  1. biological contributions of reptiles
    Shelled amniotic egg, tough waterproof skin, temporal openings: power jaw closure, internal fertilization/ water conservation.
  2. Characteristics of extant reptiles
    Skin-epidermis with scales that shed periodically, dermis is thick and has chromatophores that give it color, powerful jaws, disarticulate jaws to swallow large prey, powerful limbs
  3. amniotic egg anatomy
    • amnion- surrounds embryo and is filled with fluid.
    • chorion- surrounds everything and lines the inside of the egg, used for gas exchange
    • atlantois- water storage sac
    • yolk sac- holds yolf, which is food for embryo
  4. parareptilia vs eureptilia
    parareptilia is anapsids, eureptilia is diapsids(true reptiles)
  5. Archosaurs vs lepidosaurs
    • archosaurs: birds, crocs, dinosaurs
    • lepidosaurs: lizard ancestors
  6. Classification of reptiles
    • class: reptilia
    • subclass: anapsida, diapsida
    • order: testudines, crocodylia, rhynocephalia, squamata
    • suborders: turtles, eusucia, sphenodontida, sauria, serpentes.
  7. Rhynocephalia family characteristics
    • tuatara
    • new zealand
    • dates from lower triassic period
    • no intromittent organ
    • slow metabolism
    • weird teeth
    • active at low temps
    • longevity in lifespan extreme (60-100 years, possibly 200)
  8. convergence? example
    • convergence is the evolution of similar traits in unrelated lineages.
    • Example: tuatara looks like a lizard but has own order. Glass snake looks like a snake but is a lizard.
  9. Turtle Familiy Chelidae
    sidenecks, snake neck family
  10. Turtle family podocnemidae
    sideneck 2, shortneck family
  11. turtle family cheloniidae
    sea turtles
  12. turtle family dermochelyidae
    leatherbacks- major food is jellyfish
  13. turtle family trionychidae
    softshells, bony shells covered with leathery skin.
  14. turtle family kinosternidae
    mud and musk turtles
  15. turtle family chelydridae
    snapping turtles
  16. turtle family emydidae
    european pond turtles
  17. turtle family bataguridae
    asian pond turtles
  18. testudinidae
  19. Turtle shell significance and how it forms in embryos.
    • Shell is living tissue, needs calcium, thus turtles bask in sun for vitamin D.
    • Embryo construction of shell occurrs from expansion ofdermal tissue which guides ribs to top of the shell. Mobilization of the dermal bone forms the bottom shell.
  20. How does the turtle shell inhibit respiration and how do turtles deal with this?
    • It is impossible for turtles to move ribs and expand chest cavity.
    • their visceral muscles press and extend lungs.
    • moving of the pectoral girdle helps lung breathing.
  21. Xeric Lizards
    Live in dry conditions
  22. Cosmopolitan Lizards
    can live anywhere
  23. cryptic lizards
    camoflauge lizards
  24. What is the cool thing about being a cryptic lizard and having a dewlap?
    Being able to attract mates during mating season with vibrations.
  25. What is the big deal about leglessness?
    7 families are legless and over 65 species. Can be example of convergence. Ex. Glass snake is really a lizard
  26. What is being visual as far as using this sense as your major environmental detector due for color, prey detection, and mate attraction, and territoriality?
    • Colors are used for reproduction, territory, defense, and communicatio.
    • Heat is also visual on tropical lizards, as temperatures change, so do colors.
  27. What are two large supraorders of lizards? Differences? Which is most lizard like? What families belong to each? Which is more lizard like?
    • Scleroglossans and iguanids.
    • Scleroglossans use sight to find prey and attack. Natural predator skills.
    • Iguanids use tongue to smell prey and attack. Ambush predators.
  28. Relation of lizards to what major plants and animals in evolution?
    • Plant: gymnosperm plants of the jurassic period.
    • animal: arthropods
  29. Which snake groups belong to colubridae?
    • viperidae
    • elapidae
    • colubridae(70% of snakes)
    • atractaspidae
  30. Difference between scolecophidia and other groups of snake skulls
    • scolecophidia skull is made for digging. Cannot open mouths.
    • Other snakes can open jaws really wide
  31. Which family is most diverse snakes? subfamily>?
    Colubridae, colubrinae
  32. Differences in venom... which major snakes have different types?
    • Viperidae are hemotoxic
    • elapidae are neurotoxic
  33. Which family has the longest snake? heaviest?
    • longest: reticulated python(pythoniae)
    • Heaviest: anaconda(boinae)
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bio exam