intro surveillance

  1. Sentinel Program
    • Most common name for it
    • Animal health status
    • ID diseases
    • Not a disease prevention program
    • Other names for it: Animal Health Monitoring Program, Preventive medicine, Microbacterial Program, Quality Assurance (QA)
  2. Organization and Structure of Health Surveillance
    Dependant on 2 things: Design and Function of Sentinel program, and How well management program functions
  3. Most common theme of Sentinel Program
    • Characterizing animal's microbial burden and health status
    • Degree of characterization varies
  4. Program Goals
    • Reliable and repeatable data
    • Decreased risk of zoonoses to personnel
    • Decreased risk of spreading disease (zoonoses)
    • Reduced risk of spreading infectious agents (get it out of the animals)
    • Decreased number of animals used
    • Prevent unneccesary harm to animals used
  5. Trouble shooting in program
    • When disease outbreak occurs (may be latent)
    • Inconsistent or improbable results
  6. The "Players"
    • Management
    • Animal Technicians
    • Attending Vet(s): make the decisions
    • Specialists: X-rays, blood tests, zoos taking animals to vet schools (UPenn with Phila. zoo)
  7. Involves many sciences:
    • Pathology
    • Microbiology
    • Parasitology
  8. Program Design
    • For and around the people to serve: People involved are called PI's
    • Species housed: plays a big part
    • Company/Laboratory: what are the company's goals
  9. Records
    • Identify and isolate individual species: rats with rats, mice with mice, tigers with tigers, etc. Never mix species
    • Rodents, Guinea Pigs: Group housed; larger animals are group housed. Animals that are group housed are always ID'd individually
  10. Types of Records:
    • Receiving: the date, how many you're getting, etc.
    • Quarantine/Acclimation: The overall health assessment will be done on this form; at some point a vet has to check the animals out and sign the form
    • Feed and Bedding: Records must be kept for purposes of expirations and milling dates
    • Clinical: Any medications or vaccinations, how many animals are being housed, dose, manufacturer, etc.
    • Morbidity and Mortality: Morb.-sick, Mort.-dead. Done a minimum of once a day, 365 days a year in every animal facility
    • Janitorial/Cleaning/Sanitation: When, how, etc.
  11. Tests for Disease:
    • Serology
    • Bacteriology
    • Parasitology
    • Pathology
    • Mycoplasm: very specific assay; usually in lab/research facilities
  12. Factors to Consider when testing for Dzs
    • Possible dzs for that species
    • Probability that it's the problem; keep it simple
    • Test sensitivity (ability to detect small quantity)
    • Test specificity (ability to detect the right cause)
  13. Sampling
    • Extramural (external): outside sources
    • Intramural (internal): anything we do from w/i
    • Sentinels: controls for the whole facility
    • Look for trends: frequency of disease, size
  14. Necropsy
    • Collect blood: before euthanization
    • Tissues (histopathology)
    • Fecal sample
    • Other body fluids (urine, saliva, etc.)
  15. Quarantine/Acclimation: Separate new animals
    • Decrease chance of new pathogens entering colony
    • Adjustment time
    • Verify health status
    • Examine for potential problems
  16. Quarantine/Acclimation: Types of Programs
    • Passive: Doing nothing; 7-28 days; 4-6 weeks is ideal but not practical b/c it's expensive
    • Active: Doing tests; the breeders/vendors are the ones testing.
    • Cohabitants: Take existing known, healthy animals and drop them in with new animals for a period of 4 weeks. Then take a blood sample from the older animal, looking for an antibody response. Females work better b/c of barbering in males
    • Immunosuppression: Done in research field. Also done on humans in chemotherapy
Card Set
intro surveillance
intro animal mgmt