1. Parts of the Atom
    • Nucleus. Positively charged core of the atom
    • Electron cloud. Negatively charged outer region of the Atom
  2. Types of Atoms
    • Ions
    • Electrolytes
  3. Ion
    When atom lose or gain electrons so that their electron cloud has either more or less electros than the nucleus.
  4. Electrolytes
    Ions that when placed in water solution can conduct electricity. Also plays an important role in body functions as mm contraction.
  5. Chemical Reactions
    Metabolism. Extraction of energy from food, assembly of new cellular structures needed for maintenance, repair, and growth; secretion of regulatory hormones.
  6. Types of Chemical Reactions
    • Decomposition reactions
    • Synthesis reactions
    • Exchange reactions
    • Oxidation-reduction reactions
  7. Decomposition reaction
    Also called catabolic or degradative reactions. Is when chemical bonds are broken down to produce 2 or more smallest substances.
  8. Synthesis reactions
    Creating new stuff. New chemical bonds are created to join together 2 or more atoms or small molecules into a single larger molecule.
  9. Exchange reactions
    Is the combination of Decomposition and Synthesis to form new products.
  10. Oxidation-reduction reactions
    Hybrid reactions that involve Decomposition, Synthesis, and/or Exchange and result in a change in the energy content of the reacting molecules.
  11. Cell Structure - Three Subdivisions
    • First subdivision. Cell or Plasma Membrane
    • Second subdivision. Nucleus
    • Third subdivision. Cytoplasm
  12. Cell or Plasma Membrane
    Membranous structures that bounds each cell.
  13. Structure of the cell that has 4 general functions:

    Mechanical barrier. Keeps everything out.
    Selective gate keeper. Let ions and and specific substances move across the membrane.
    Chemical receptor sites. Proteins on the outer surface that recognize and bind with substances that fit their lock.
    Identify self from non self for immune function. Attack foreign cells and keep what belongs to the body.
    First Structure - Cell Membrane
  14. Second Subdivision - Nucleus
    • Largest single organized cellular component
    • Control Center that directs Protein Synthesis
    • Is where DNA is found
    • Location of Genetic Blueprints (DNA) that Direct Cell Replication
  15. Is everything else in the cell that is not the nucleus membrane.
    Third subdivision - Cytoplasm
  16. Parts of Cytoplasm
    • Cytosol
    • Membranous Organelles
  17. Cytosol
    Complex, gel-like mass containing enzymes, ribosomes, transport vesicles. It is just the jelly part of the cytoplasm.
  18. Membranous Organelles
    • Endoplasmic reticulum
    • Golgi complex
    • Lysosomes
    • Peroxisomes
    • Mitochondria
  19. Is what holds the nucleus.
    Protein Production for extracellular export and intracellular construction - Transcribing DNA code into a complementary RNA code
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  20. Golgi complex
    Is in charge of modifying, packaging and distributing proteins.
  21. Cleas the cell, can be viewed as recycling centers that break down old, damaged, or dead cell parts; and removing goreign material.
  22. Peroxisomes
    Desinfect the cell. Detoxifying various toxic wastes or foreign toxic compounds that have entered the cell.
  23. Produce energy
    Also called power plants
    Extract energy from the nutrients in food and transform it in energy
  24. Cilia
    Hairlike projections that moves material on the cell surface forward.
  25. "tale" of the cell that is used to move a cell through its environment.
  26. Microtubules
    • Moves stuff inside the cell
    • Helps the cell maintain its shape
  27. Energy (ATP) production in the cell
    • Glycolysis. Occurs in the cytosol, without oxygen, produces 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule.
    • Tricarboxylic acid cycle or Kreb's cycle or Citric acid cycle. Takes place in mitocondria, it need oxygen to proceed, produces 36 ATP molecules per glucose molecule, serves as a source of bulding blocks
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