Final RDG 360

  1. The spelling and sound of the consonant in a prefix has been absorbed into the base or root to which the prefix is affixed. (eg. ad+tract= attract)
    Absorbed/Assimilated Prefixes
  2. Most commonly a suffix or prefix attached to a base word, stem, or root.
  3. The concept that letters and letter combinations are used to represent phonemes in orthography.
    Alphabetic Principal
  4. A vowel sound represented by a bariety of different spelling patterns, or vowel patterns that represent a wide range of sound.
    Ambiguous Vowels
  5. Referes to the speed and accuracy of word recongition and spelling. Automaticity is the goal of word study instruction and frees cognitive resource for coprehension.
  6. A word to which prefixes and/or suffixes are added.
    Base words
  7. An orthographic term referring to two-or-three letter sequences that are blended together. There are l-blends (bl, cl, fl, gl, pl, sl), r-blends (br, cr, dr, fr, gr, pr, tr) and s-blends (sc, scr, sk, sp, st, squ, sw). Although the letter sounds are blended together quicly, each one is pronounced. Constant blends occuring at the beginning of words are onsets, and as such, are treated orthographically as a unit.
  8. Meaning units of language (morphomes) that cannot stand alone as a word.
    Bound Morphemes
  9. A closed syllable ends with or is "closed" by a consonant sound. In polysyllabic words, a closed syllable contains a short vowel sound that is closed by 2 consonants.
    Closed Syllable
  10. A consonant sound, such as /s/ or /m/, that can be prolonged as long as the breath last without distorting the sound quality.
    Continuant Sound
  11. Affixes added to base words that affect the meaning (signs, resign; break, breakable) and/or part of speech (beauty, beautiful). Compare to inflected endings.
    Derivational affixes
  12. Two letters that represent one sound. There are sonsonant digraphs and vowel digraphs, though the term most commonly refers to consontant digraphs. Common consonant digraphs include sh, ch, th, and wh. Consonant diagraphs at the beginning of words are onsets.
  13. A complex speech sound beginning with one vewel sound and moving to another within the same syllabe. The oy in boy is a dipthong as is the ou in cloud.
  14. The studey of the origin and historical development of words.
  15. More than scoring words right and worng, feature analyses provide a way of interpreting children's spelling errors by taking into account their knowledge of specific orthographic features such as consonant blends or short vowels. Feature analyses infomr teachers what spelling features to teach.
    Feature Analysis
  16. Words that are spelled alike, but have different pronuciations and different meanings, eg. "tear a piece of paper" and "to shed a tear".
  17. Suffixes that change the verb tense (walks, wlaked, walking) or number (dogs, boxes) of a word.
    Inflected Endings
  18. Refers to morphemes, or meaning units in the spelling of words, such as the suffix -ed which signals past tense, or the root graph in the words autograph or graphite.
  19. An Open syllable ends with a long-vowel sound (labor, reason).
    Open Syllable
  20. Refers to the writing system of a language, specifically, the correct sequence of letters, characters, or symbols.
  21. The smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another. For example, the t of tug and the r of rug are two phonemes.
  22. Refers to the ability to consciously manipulate individual phonemes in a spoken language. Phonemic awarenes is often assessed by the ability to tap, count, or push a penny forward for every sound heard in a word like cat: c/a/t.
    Phonemic Awareness
  23. The systematic relationship between letters and sounds.
  24. An awareness of various speech sounds such as syllables, rhyme, and individual phonemes.
    Phonological Awareness
  25. The muscial qualities of language, including intonation, expression, stress, and rhythm.
  26. Refers to Greek Roots or word parts of Greek origin that are often combined with other roots to form words such as telephone (tele and phone).
    Root Words/ Roots
  27. A vowel sound in English that often occurs in an unstressed sylable, such as the /uh? sound in the first syllable of the word above.
  28. Words that are related in meaning often share the same spelling despite changes in pronunciation from one form of the word to the next. The word sign, for example, retains the g from signal even though it is not pronounced , thus "signaling" the meaning connection through the spelling.
    Spelling-meaning connection
  29. Word Parts, usually of Latin origin, that cannot stand alone, but are used in combination with other word parts in words related in meaning. Latin stems carry consistent through abstract meanings an can appear in various positions in words. For example, the Latin stem spect means roughly "to loo at" or "to watch" and occurs at the beginning of the word spectator, the end of the word inspect, and the middle of the word respectable.
  30. The process of determining the pronunciation and/or meaning of a word by analyzing word parts including syllables, base words, and affixes.
    Structural Analysis
  31. Units of spoken language that consist of a vowel that may be preceded and/or followed by several consonants. Syllables are units of sound and can often be detected by paying attentnion to movements of the mouth. Syllabic divisions indicated in the dictionary are not always correct since the dictionary will always separate meaning units regardless of how the word is pronounced. For example, the proper syllable division for the workd naming is na-ming, however, the dictionary divides this word as nam-ing to preserve the ing.
  32. Unstressed syllables. The final unstressed syllable in words such as label and doctor have no distinct vowel sound.
  33. Meaning units of language (morphemes) that stand alone as words (workshop has two free morphemes, work and shop).
    Free Morpheme
  34. Words that sound alike, are spelled differently, and have different meanings, Eg. bear and bare, pane and pain and forth and fourth.
  35. Ages 1-7, Prek to mid 1st, corresponding stage of reading and writing: emergent
    Emergent Stage
  36. Instruction: talk with and read to students to share the sounds and meaning of language, Build vocabulary with concept sorts, develop phonoligical awareness with picture sorts, songs, and games, enhance alphabet knowledge iwth games, matching activities, and sorts.
    Emergent State
  37. Ages: 4-9, K-3rd. Corresponding stage of reading and writing: beginning
    Letter Name Stage
  38. Use picture sorts to compare and contrast initial and final consonant sounds, develop sight-word vocabularies with word bans, sort pictures and words to contraxt single consonant sounds with consonant blends, compare and contrast short-vowel word families, focus on the sound an spelling of one short vowel, then compare across short-vowel famiies, examine consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) families.
    Letter Name Stage
  39. Ages: 6-12, 1st-mid 4, Corresponding stage of reading and writing: transisitonal.
    Within Words Stage
  40. Sort pictures to contrast long and short vowels, Use word sorts to examine long-vowel patterns, Collect words in word-study notebooks, sort words by grammatic and semantic features, conduct word hunts for specific long and comples vowel patterns, play board games to contrast r-influenced vowels, play card games such as Homophone Rummy.
    Within Words Stage
  41. Ages: 8-18, 3rd- 8th, Corresponding stage of reading and writing: Intermediate.
    Syllables and Affixes Stage
  42. Use sorts and word hunts to study consonant doubleing, common suffixes and past-tense endings, examine open and closed syllables, examine placement of syllable stress in homographs, compare accents in words, compare words that end in el, er, and cher sounds, study common prefixes, interrelate spelling and meaning in word-study groups, study words from reading by patterns in spelling and meaning.
    Sullables & Affixes stage
  43. Ages 10+, 5th-12th, Corresponding stage of reading and writing: advanced
    Derivational stage
  44. Examine the spelling-meaning connection, study internal morphology in syllables and prefixes, note derived froms in bases and roots, examine etmolgies in the content areas, use root books and dictionaries to look up Greek and Latin forms and foreign borrowings.
    Derivatinal stage
  45. A (blank) is syllabicated between the two words conprising it. Then divide the words that form the compound following another rule if they have more than one syllable each.
    Rule for Compound Word
  46. If a two syllable word has two consonants within the word (vccv) the word is divided between those two medial consonants. If the two consonants form a digraph or blend consider them the same as a single consonant for syllabication purposes. If theer are three medical consonants with two of them as a consonant digraph or blen then keep the digraph or blend together.
    Rule for CC
  47. Contrasted with the rule above with two medial consonants are words with one consonant between vowels. The word is divided either before or after the consonant. Visually you cannot know which way. Knowledge of open and closed syllables is necessary here. If the first vowel is long then divide before the consonant (ti-ger) if the first vowel is short then divide ater the consonant (liz-ard). Generally try for a short vowel sound and if that is not recgnizable word then try sounding a long vowel in the first syllable.
    Rule for single medial consonant
  48. When the last syllable of the word ends in the lettters ie then the consonant before the ie forms a syllable with the ie. Examples are ta-ble and bot-tle. This ending syllabe is called a syllabic l because the l is actually carrying the schwa phneme and the e is there because every English syllable must have a vowel letter.
    Rule for ending le
  49. vc Example: cit in city
    Closed syllable
  50. cv Example: ti in tiger
    Open syllable
  51. This includes vowel digraphs, long and short. Double o, and dipthongs. Examples: pea in pea-cock, paw in Paw-nee, and roy in roy-al, oo in moon and cook.
    Double vowels
  52. vr Example: cir in cir-cus
  53. Eample ake in bake and mize in op-ti-mize
  54. consonant le- Examples ble in ta-ble and tle in bot-tle. Also the tion as in vacation.
    Final stable syllable
Card Set
Final RDG 360
Review for the final