1. Patient SM Damage
    Bilateral Amygdala Damage
  2. Emotion intensity ratings are different for SM how?
    afraid rating very low intensity
  3. SM emotion drawings
    Actually a good artist, drawing for afraid is of a baby - confusing
  4. Defining emotion approach 1
    • Basic emotions: There are core basic emotions that all humans can experience (Darwin)
    • Ex: Paul Ekman's universal facial expressions: angry, happy, disgust, surprise, sad, fear
  5. Defining emotion approach 2
    • Dimensions of emotion: emotions are not discrete states, but vary along a continuum
    • 1. Valence vs. Arousal
    • 2. Approach vs. Withdrawal
  6. Valence vs. Arousal
    • Valence (good, bad, or pleasant, unpleasant) vs. Arousal (high or low intensity)
    • Ex: find penny on street: positive valence, low arousal
    • win lotter: positive valence, high arousal
  7. Approach vs. Withdrawal
    • define emotions by the goals they motivate: do they cause one to approach or withdraw from a stimulus?
    • not the same as positive or negative (anger is a negative state that motivates one to approach)
  8. Techniques to elicit emotion
    • Mood induction
    • Reward or punishment
    • Emotionally evocative stimuli
  9. Mood induction
    present emotional stimuli (film clips) and encourage subjects to get in the mood
  10. Reward or punishment
    • reward subject with money or food
    • punish subjects with shock or aversive sound
  11. Emotionally evocative stimuli
    • words like "cancer" "love" or taboo words
    • emotionally laden pictures
    • -international affective picture system
  12. Techniques to assess emotion
    • Direct assessment
    • Indirect assessment
  13. Direct assessment
    Just ask: how d you feel, how would you rate this stimulus
  14. Indirect Assessment
    • Choosing among possible options: subjects choices reflect relative value placed on various options
    • Facilitation or inhibition of a response: emotional stroop, automaticity of emotional processing
    • Psychophysiological asessments: skind conductance, heart rate, startle eyeblink, pupil diameter
  15. Fear Conditioning demonstrates
    • Implicit Emotional Learning
    • blue square paired with shock then illicits startle response and increased skin conductance
  16. Patients with amygdala damage and Fear conditioning
    do not show fear response with skin conductance after the conditioned stimulus (blue box) but do show it with unconditioned stimulus (shock)
  17. Explicit Emotional Learning
    Instructed fear- every time you see the blue square you will get a shock (but you actually don't), but still increasess skin conductance
  18. Limbic System and James Papez
    James Papez proposed circuit of neural structures involved in emotional processing: hypothalamus, anterior thalamus, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus
  19. Extended Limbic System
    Maclean named structures Papez circuit and extended network to include amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex and basal ganglia
  20. Problems with Limbic System concept
    • 1. what is the criteria for a limbic structure?
    • 2. some limbic regions though to be involved in emotion are now known to be more important for non-emotional behaviors like the hippocampus
  21. Amygdala Research guided by
    Animal models
  22. amygdala's role in ascribing affective meaning to stimuli
    • Kluver-Bucy syndrome- monkeys don't avoid fearful stimuli
    • neurons in amygdala respond to affective nature of stim
    • amygdala critical for acquisition and expression of CR
  23. Human studies show amygdala role in
    • emotional memory
    • evaluation of emotional stimuli
    • implicit emotional learning
    • explicit emotional learning
    • modulates hippocampal consolidation
  24. Study showing Amygdala arousal and explict memory
    emotional words are remembered better than neutral ones after a delay
  25. Possible mechanisms for emotional enhancement of memory
    • semantic organization
    • distinctiveness
    • attention
    • retention/post-stimulus elaboration
    • retention/consolidation (differential forgetting curve for arousing events)
  26. Taboo Word Study
    • Right and Left Temporal lobe lobectomy pts rated taboo and neutral words.
    • SCR and verbal arousal ratings recorded
    • No differnce with controls for rating and SCR
    • However, immediate and delayed recall for taboo words: controls remembered more taboo words, and LTL remembered the least words AND least taboo words
  27. Episodic representation of emotional properties will
    alter amydgala function
  28. Fear Conditioning in Humans
    Humans and animals w amygdala damage don't show increased autonomic arousal (SCR) when waiting for an aversive stimulus
  29. the fact that humans w amygdala don't shown increased autonomic response to waiting for an aversive stimulus shows that....
    amygdala is critical for the autonomic expression of a learned aversive response in fear conditioning
  30. How do we know that the aversive stimulus was in fact learned?
    • Humans with amygdala damage can reporte that a CS can predict an aversive event in fear conditioning.
    • (hippocampus -dependent)
  31. Dissociation btw fear response
    • dissociation bw physiologicla expression of fear response (AMYGDALA DEPENDENT)
    • and cognitive understanding of CS (HIPPOCAMPUS DEPENDENT)
  32. Instructed fear trial
    • 12 healthy subjects presented:
    • rest, safe (yellow square), threat (blue square)
    • Increased SCR to threat and slight increase in safe in comparison to rest
    • even though no shock is administered
  33. Instructed fear fMRI
    • increased left amygdala activation in expectation of aversive stimulus (threat vs. safe condition)
    • indicates the role of amygdala in explicit emotional learning
  34. Role of the eyes in recognizing fearful faces
    • With eye tracking, revealed that SM wasn't looking at the eyes.
    • fear is particularly connected to the eyes
  35. When SM was trained to look at the eyes
    could ID fear comparable to the control group
  36. computer generated face morphing
    • vary the degree of expressed emotiona and look at brain activation
    • ex: manipulate the degree of disgust and correlate with ERP components
  37. N170 least likely to be generated by
    disgust face
  38. N170 is found in the
    Fusiform Gyrus
  39. N170 is greatest for
    • neutral faces
    • the more you deviate from a neutral affect face, the less neural signaling you get.
    • a prototypical face generates the greatest N170 in the Fusiform Gyrus
  40. Insular Cortex cares most about
    • disgust face
    • greatest neural component for the disgust face
    • also activated when we experience disgust
  41. Emotion-Associated Brain Region- Functional Role
    • 1. fear: Amygdala: Learning, Avoidance
    • 2. Anger: Prbitofronal Cortex, Anterior Cingulate Cortex, indicates social violations
    • 3. Sadness: Amygdala, Right Temporal Lobe: withdraw
    • 4. Disgust: Anterior Insula, Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Avoidance
  42. Is the limbic lobe the "emotional system"?
    no, it is not the only emotional substrate involved in emotion
  43. our emotional processing
    our ability to perceive other emotions is tied to our ability to experience it ourselves- it evokes the same emotional processes

    if we couldn;t experience disgust, could we still perceive it in other people?
Card Set
Cog Neuro Exam #3