cardio stuff

  1. prehypertensive
  2. Renin--with fall in bp
    enzyme secreted from juxtaglomerular apparatus--released in response to decreased renal bl flow and decreased arterial pressure (then vasoconstriction)
  3. hypertensive crisis
    bp >240 sys. >120 dia
  4. alpha 1, alpha 1
    • 1-works right on vessles and dilates
    • 2-affects HR and vessels>>slow down and dilate
  5. Hypertension meds: central acting sympatholytics
    • clonidine (Catepress)
    • guinabenz (Wytensin)
    • methyldopa (Aldomet)
  6. Vasodilators
    • Hydralazine (Apresoline)
    • Minoxidil (Loniten)
    • Diazoxide (Hyperstat) --only IV and for hypertensive crisis
    • Nitroprusside (Nitropress)
  7. Alpha-Adrenergic Blockers
    • doxazosin (Cardura)
    • prazosin (minipress)
    • terazosin (Hytrin)

    • Give first dose at bedtime to reduce rish of first dose syncope
    • ZOSIN
    • May have reflex tachycardia
  8. Other meds: ACE inhibitors, ARBS, Beta adrenergic blockers, Ca++ ch. blockers
  9. clonidine
    check patch often
  10. symptom of arteriosclerosis: intermittent claudication
    cramping or aching sensation in calves or arch of foot--develops with exercise and relieved with rest
  11. complications of arteriosclerosis
    gangrene and amputation; paralysis
  12. Segmental BP
    • compare BP with upper and lower extremities
    • normal: similar when pt in supine pos
    • PVD: bp may be lower in legs than arm
  13. exercise stress test
    id functional limitations with PVD
  14. doppler ultrasound
    eval bl flow
  15. transcutantous oximetry
    eval tissue O2
  16. Angiography or magnetic resonance antiography
    if surgery planned to locate and determine extent obstruction
  17. meds--inhibit platelet aggregation
    • asa
    • clopidogrel (Plavix)
    • cilostrazol (Pletal) also vasodilator
  18. S&S of PVD
    • Pain
    • Pallor
    • Pulselessness
    • Paralysis
    • Paresthesia
    • Poikiloderma (hypo/hyper pigmentation of skin)
  19. Buerger's Disease
    • (thromboangiitis obliterans)
    • Occusive disease sm and med sized peripheral arteries
    • Vessels inflamed, spastic and thrombotic
    • Cig smoking most sig cause
  20. Raynauds Phenomenon
    • Spasms sm arteries and arterioles extremities
    • limit bl flow fingers and on toes, ear, and nose
    • Vasospasm--fingers turn blue, then white, and then red
  21. Aneurysm
    weakness and localized dilation bl vessel wall
  22. Fusiform
    entire circumference vessel: grow slowly but progressivly; like partially blown up balloon
  23. Sacular
    Only a portion of vessel--forms outpouching on side of otherwise norm artery. Distends with bl until appears pulsating mass
  24. Berry
    Common type congenital saccular aneurysm in section cerebral arteries
  25. Aortic dissection
    • dissecting aneurysm
    • -dev d/t weakening medial layer aorta
    • -bl leaks into vessel wall--separating intimal layer of artery from adventia
  26. Turner's sign
    severe back pain and pooling bl>>bluish discoloration back and sides
  27. aortic dissections
    • tear inner layer aorta bleeding into middle layer
    • Risk Marfan Syndrome
  28. meds for aneurysms
  29. Virchow's triad (3 pathological factors associated with thrombosis)
    • -Venous stasis
    • -Increased bl coaguability
    • -Vessel wall injury
  30. Venous insufficiency
    stasis venous flow lower extremities
  31. diagnostic tests: ascending phlebography
    contrast medium injected venins leg.... id location and extend thrombophlebitis
  32. Doppler U/S
    id obstruction larger veins legs
  33. Plethysmography
    used with doppler U/S; measure changes vol fluid passing thru veins
  34. heparin induced thrombocytopenia Antidote
    Protamine sulfate
  35. Antidote for coumadin
    Vit K
  36. Varicose Veins
    • Irregular, torturous veings with poorply functioning valves
    • Hemorrhoids--rectum
    • Esophagus--varices
Card Set
cardio stuff