2- Methods

  1. Name the devices that record structure of brain
    • MRI(magnetic resonance imaging)
    • CT (computerized tomography)
    • Histology
  2. Name the 5 devices that record functionality of brain
    • fMRI
    • EEG
    • MEG
    • ECOG
    • PET
  3. What is magnetic field strength measured in?
    Teslas = 10,000 Gauss
  4. Where is the B0 field ?
    inside the MRI scanner bore while magnet is at rest.
  5. The R in MRI refers to the resonance of what with what?
    resonance of hydrogen protons with radio frequency pulse delivered by gradient coils inside scanner.
  6. What is the spatial and temporal resolution for PET?
    • Spatial: 1-3 mm
    • Temporal: 6+sec
  7. What is the spatial and temporal resolution for MEG?
    • Spatial: 1-3 cm
    • Temporal: ms
  8. Image Upload 1Image Upload 2
    Image Upload 3
  9. T then Number ie) T1, T2 represents..
    • pulsing time of MRI study of a nucleus in magnetic field
    • T1= 0.5 sec T2= 2.5sec
  10. H2O relaxes at how many seconds?
    2.5 seconds
  11. T1 scan measures
    no water signal
  12. T2 scan prominently measures
    water signal
  13. on a T1 MRI, water shows up as
  14. on a T2 MRI, water shows up as
    Bright white
  15. a PET scan's duration is determined by what?
    radioactive half-life of particular tracer
  16. Name the tracer used for each measurement

    • B) FDG: Glucose
    • O15: Blood flow
    • PIB: Amyloid
    • FMT: decarboxylase involved in dopamine synthesis
  17. How does a PET scan work?
    Positron hits electron-->2 photons emitted at 180 degrees, travel at speed of light-->sensor pick up 2 opposing photons --> compute map
  18. How does blood appear on a CT scan after injury?
    Bright white (MRI can't do that)
  19. How does a CT scan work?
    2 x-rays emitted simultaenously, imaged towards detectors on opposite side-->computer combine time and info to form a map
  20. What does trial averaging do?
    • dampens the noise to reveal signal
    • causes noise to sum to ZERO
  21. What is an evoked potential (EP)?
    brain response to sensory stimuli
  22. What is an ERP?
    • Evoked related potential
    • measures cognitive/perceptual task
  23. What is the difference between near-field and far-field?
    • NF=neuron firing generated near scalp where EEG can measure it.
    • FF=neuron firing generation located FARTHER from electrodes
  24. In ECOG, electrodes are placed on..
    the surface of the brain, therefore, skull not in the way and are NOT LOW PASS FILTERED by presence of bone
  25. T2 scans are good for seeing
  26. What is brightest on the T1 scan?
    Fat/White matter
  27. T1 scan measures
    the rate that the longitudal component of magnetization relaxes back to the b0 field direction
  28. In an action potential, the region trailing the wave of depolarization has a net ____ charge, while the region in front has a net _____. This creates a ______
    • positive charge, negative charge,
    • dipole when it reaches the surface of the scalp
  29. Doing a Fourier Analysis of a continuous signal will give you what information about the signal?
    tells you how much frequency is present in original signal, changes continuous time series into info about amplitudes and frequencies.
  30. PET is great for looking at what?
  31. Which field has better signallign results?
    open field
  32. What does phase inversion help with?
    points to local source-when you see flip in ploarity (inversion), you see there is an abnormality.
  33. What is an example of MEG?
  34. If the geometry of an EEG source are the same (+) (+), what kind of field is it? and (-)(+)?
    • Open(+)(+)
    • Closed (+)(-)
  35. ________ allows an experimenter to pull out a true physiological signal fromthe noise when analyzing EEG data.

    B) signal averaging
  36. Order the following recording techniques according to their temporal resolution (most to least precise): fMRI, EEG, PET, CT

    B) EEG, fMRI, PET, CT
  37. CT scanning relies most directly on:

    B) the differential absorption of Xraysby tissue types of varying density.
  38. In fMRI, we measure an INCREASE in signal when:

    A) there is an increase in the ratio of oxygenated to deoxygenated hemoglobin
  39. EEG primarily measures signal from:

    B) pyramidal neurons in an open configuration
  40. Doing a Fourier Analysis of a continuous signal will give you what information about that signal?

    B) It allows you to determine the frequencies present in your signal
  41. Which is of the following is used as a measure of communication between brain regions?

    A) A and B

    Coherence and Phase locking
  42. ECOG
    a) Has better temporal resolution than fMRI
    b) Measures signals from the scalp
    c) Allows you to measure high frequency brain activity
    • A and C
    • Better temporal resolution than fMRI and allows you to measure high frequence brain activitity
  43. Theta‐Gamma coupling:a) reflects coupling between the phase of theta and the amplitude ofgammab) can be measured with electrocorticography
    • reflects coupling between phase of theta and amplitude of gamma
    • can be measured with ECOG
  44. Which of the following historical figures is INCORRECTLY matched to hiscontribution to neuropsychology?

    C) Paul Broca – described a brain area that was involved in understanding language

    language PRODUCTION
  45. The temporal and spatial resolution of fMRI is on the order of _________ and__________, respectively:

    E) seconds, millimeters
  46. Which of the following statements about MRI is incorrect?

    D) All of the above are incorrect
Card Set
2- Methods
types of imaging