biology II final

  1. 4 Characteristics of Chordates
    Notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal pouches, post-anal tail
  2. Lancelets
    Have all chordate features as adults
  3. Tunicates
    sea squirts
  4. Vertebrates
    notochord is replaced by vertebral column
  5. Characteristics of Vertebrate Chordates
    skull, cephalization, complex sense organs, vertenral column
  6. Vertebrate chordates have an ______ made of bone and/or cartilage
  7. Vertebrates reproduce _____
  8. 4 Vertebrate Adaptations
    paired appendages, closed circulatory system, efficient respiration (lungs or gills), and efficient excretory system.
  9. Fishes
    aquatic chordates with gills, fins and scales (most)
  10. Fish Subgroups
    jawless, cartilaginous, and bony
  11. Jawless Fish Characteristics
    no jaws, no scales, no paired fins
  12. Hagfish
    jawless fish-marine scavenger; no vertebral column. most authorities don't classify them as fish
  13. Lamprey
    jawless aquatic parasites. have a cartilaginous vertebral column
  14. Characteristics of Jawed Fish
    hinged jaws (developed from gill arches), paired fins, most have scales and most are carnivores
  15. Class Chondrichthyes
    cartilaginous fish; sharks and rays. marine predators
  16. Chondrichthyes physical characteristics
    cartilaginous skeletons, denticles (tooth-like scales), exposed gill slits
  17. Osteichthyes
    bony fish with broad, flattened scales. operculum, swim bladder
  18. Osteichthyes Operculum
    covers gill chamber and helps pump water across gills
  19. Swim bladder
    characteristic of osteoichthyes, gas-filled sac for buoyancy, compensates for a heavier skeleton
  20. Groups of Bony Fish
    Ray-finned fish (most common), lobe-finned fish
  21. Lobe-finned Fish (osteichthyes)
    paired fins (fleshy extensions of body), similar to ancestors of land vertebrates, lungfish & coelacanth
  22. Amphibians
    aquatic larvae (gills), terrestrial adults (lungs); many exceptions
  23. Amphibian anatomy & physiology
    small lungs supplemented by thin, moist skin. no scales. three-chambered hearts, either ectothermic or poikilothermic
  24. Ectothermic
    absorbs heat from environment
  25. Poikilothermic
    variable body temperature
  26. Amphibian reproduction
    external fertilization (eggs deposited in water), aquatic larvae, metamorphosis
  27. Frogs & Toads
    lack tails, herbivorous larvae, carnivorous adults
  28. Salamanders & Newts
    long tails, carnivores
  29. Caecilians
    legless, fossorial, reproduce by internal fertizilation
  30. Amnion
    fluid-filled sac that allows embryos to develop on land
  31. Amniotic eggs
    deposited on land, leathery or calcareous shells, extraembryotic membrane
  32. Extraembryonic membrane (amniotic tetrapods)
    functions in protection, excretion, respiration, nutrition
  33. amniotic tetrapod skin
    conserves water, prevents gas exchange; thorachic breathing (more efficient)
  34. amniotic tetrapod kidneys
    conserve water
  35. Amniotic tetrapods reproduce ______, so external water is not needed
  36. Amniote taxonomy (traditional)
    reptiles (turtles, tuataras, lizards & snakes, crocodylians), birds, mammals
  37. Amniote taxonomy (current)
    turtles, reptiles (birds, tuataras, lizards & snakes, crocodylians), mammals
  38. Reptiles
    Turtles, tuataras, squamates, crocodylians
  39. Turtles
    protective shell with no teeth
  40. Tuataras
    lizard-like reptiles, that are found only in new zealand
  41. Squamates
    have paired copulatory organs, include lizards and snakes
  42. lizards
    squamates with four limbs, predators, moveable eyelids and external ears
  43. snakes
    legless squamates, carnivors, no external ears, no eyelids
  44. crocodylians
    semiaquatic predators, build nests and care for offspring
  45. Metabolism of reptiles
    ectothermic or poikilothermic
  46. Birds
    class aves or reptilia. amniotes with feathers
  47. bird feather types
    contour (flight) and down (insulation)
  48. Bird flight specializations
    wings, hollow bones, beak (no teeth), enlarged sternum with well developed muscles, efficient respiratory/circulatory systems, excellent vision and muscle reflexes
  49. Bird body temperature
    endothermic/homeothermic, feathers and fat for insulation, increased metabolism
  50. avian reproduction
    internal fertilization, hard-shelled eggs, hatchlings require parental care
  51. Mammal characteristics
    mammary glands (modified sweat glands), hair
  52. mammal hair
    outgrowths of skin made of keratin, functions in insulation, protection, sensation, attraction, etc.
  53. mammals have a ________ metabolism
  54. Mammalian reproduction
    internal fertilization and development, live birth, placenta
  55. mammal placenta
    temporary organ that supplies developing offspring w/nutrients and oxygen, removes waste
  56. mammals have specialized _____ and large ____ (relative to body size)
    teeth; brains
  57. Egg-laying mammals
    order monotremata, duck-billed platypus, spiny anteater, have cloaca, secrete milk onto fur
  58. Cloaca
    anal-uro-genital hole, through which eggs are passed through
  59. Monotremes don't have ______
    nipples for offspring to feed from
  60. Pouched mammals (marsupialia)
    immature newborns crawl into pouch, attach to nipple to continue development. most common in australia
  61. Placental mammals
    have placenta (organ of exchange between mother & embryo), parasitic
  62. Order Rodentia
    eutherian mammals, have continuously growing incisors for gnawing, largest mammal order, occupy terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, and semiaquatic niches
  63. Terrestrial rodents
    mice, chipmunks
  64. Fossorial rodents
    gophers, prairie dogs
  65. arboreal rodents
    squirrels, porcupines
  66. Semiaquatic rodents
    muskrats, beavers
  67. Order chiroptera
    flying mammals (bats), leathery membrane supported by digital bones, echolocation
  68. Order Insectivora
    primitive mammals, moles & shrews
  69. Order Carnivora
    flesh eating mammals with canine teeth, digitigrades; dogs, cats, weasels, bears, seals
  70. Order Primates
    generalized mammals with five digits per limb, often arboreal (monkeys, apes, humans)
  71. Order Artiodactyla
    even-toed ungulates (large herbivores), walk on tips of third and fourth toes, have horns or antlers

    (buffalo, sheep, deer, goats, cows, pigs, hippopotami)
  72. horns vs. antlers
    horns are permanent and non-branching, antlers are deciduous and branching
  73. Order Cetacea
    large marine mammals, with pectoral limbs (flippers), no pelvic limbs, whales and dolphins
  74. Order Lagomorpha
    chisel-like incisors, hind limbs longer than forelimbs (rabbits, hares, pikas)
  75. Order Perissodactyla
    odd-toed ungulates, walk on tips of 1 or 3 hoofed toes (horses, zebras, rhinoceroses)
  76. Order Proboscidea
    massive, five-toed ungulates with trunks, and elongated upper incisors (tusks), elephants
  77. Characteristics of primates
    arboreal specializations: grasping hands and feet, large eyes with binocular vision, well developed brain, prolonged infancy to learn behaviors and social structures
  78. Primate hands and feet
    five dexterous digits, opposable thumb, big toe, nails instead of claws
  79. Primate vision
    large eyes, directed forward, depth perception (3D vision)
  80. Primate brain integrates _____ and coordinates ____ _____
    sensory information; hand muscles
  81. Prosimians
  82. New World Monkeys
    long prehensile tails, flattened noses
  83. Old World Monkeys
    lack prehensile tails, protruding noses
  84. Apes
    no tails, brachiate (knuckle-walk)
  85. Gibbons
    small arboreal primates
  86. Orangutans
    large arboreal primates
  87. Gorillas
    largest, live on ground
  88. Chimpanzees
    live on ground and in trees
  89. Humans
    no tails, bi-pedal, patchy hair, complex culture
  90. Proconsul
    presumed ancestor of apes and humands, quadrupeds
  91. early hominids characterized by _____
  92. Australopithecus
    "southern ape"
  93. Australopithecus afarensis
    1-1.4 m tall (based on pelvic, leg, and foot bones, footprints), walked erect, 450-500 cc cranical capacity, ate seeds, nuts, fruits and vegetables, common australopithecine and human ancestor
  94. australopithecine africanus
    human-like hands and feet, 500 cc cranial capacity, possibly meat eater
  95. giant australopithecines
    diet of coarse vegetation. australopithecus robustus (southern Africa), australopithecus boisei (eastern Africa)
  96. True humans (genus homo)
    >600 cc cranial capacity, human jaws and food structure, use of tools
  97. Homo habilus
    "handy man", used/made tools, possible meat eater, 700 cc cranial capacity
  98. Homo ergaster
    "workman", used well-crafted tools
  99. Homo erectus
    "upright man" migrated out of Africa, used elaborate tools, discovered fire, wore clothing, built shelters. likely hunters adapted to cold climates, 850 cc cranium, later 1200 cc. (homo heidelbergensis)
  100. Homo neanderthalis
    skilled tool users, took care of elderly and sick, had burials and spiritual beliefs, brains larger than modern humans
  101. homo floresiensis
    "hobbits", very tiny, insular dwarfism, descendents of homo erectus
  102. homo sapiens
    fully modern humans
  103. problems with hominid evolution
    A. africanus, H. ergaster, and H. neaderthalis--exact relationships undetermined
  104. origins of modern humans
    multiregional hypothesis vs. out of africa hypothesis
  105. multiregional hypothesis
    h. erectus left africa 2 million years ago and dispersed, homo sapiens emerged over a large geographic area, all living humans come from homo erectus
  106. out of africa hypothesis
    homo erectus left africa and different populations became reproductively isolated and evolved independently, and homo sapiens arose in one place (Africa/Middle East) and migrated out, replacing all other species of humans without interbreeding
  107. Plants, major characteristics
    Domain Eukaryotae, Kingdom Plantae, multicellular organisms with no muscle fibers, photosynthetic autotrophs
  108. Evidence for descent from green algae
    chlorophylls A & B, store startch, DNA similar to stoneworts
  109. Plant life cycles
    alternation of generations, sporophyte & gametophyte
  110. sporophyte generation
    produces haploid spores by meiosis, which develop into the next generation
  111. gametophyte generation
    produces haploid gametes by mitosis, which unite to form the zygote (first cell of the sporophyte)
  112. in plants, one generation is _______; it is physically _____ and lives ______
    dominant, larger, longer
  113. Only the ______ generation has vascular tissue
  114. Plant problems w/terrestrial life: Getting water to plant cells
    Solution: stay small and close to the ground

    Solution: develop vascular tissue (lead to sporophyte dominance)
  115. plant problems w/terrestrial life: dessication
    waxy cuticle prevents plant from drying out, but limits gas exchange.
  116. structure developed to combat limited gas exchange caused by cuticle
    stomata--controllable openings for gas exchange
  117. plant problems w/terrestrial life: getting sperm to eggs
    solutions vary, spores etc.
  118. why do most plants live on land?
    unfiltered sunlight and CO2
  119. Four major advances of terrestrial plants
    • 1. protection of embryo (all land plants except algae)
    • 2. vascular tissues (most plants except mosses)
    • 3. seeds (most plants except mosses & ferns)
    • 4. flowers (not mosses, ferns, conifers)
  120. Bryophytes (avascular plants)
    no vascular tissue, gametophyte dominance
  121. Bryophyte male & female structures
    archegonia (female--produces eggs)

    antheridia (male, produces sperm, must have water to swim to archegonia)
  122. in bryophytes, the ______ grows out of the archegonium and produces ____-_______ spores.
    sporophyte, wind-dispersed
  123. three bryophyte phyla
    • 1. Hornworts
    • 2. liverworts
    • 3. mosses
  124. Hornworts
    bryophyte, leaf-like, dominant gametophyte, vertical sporangia, (structure where spores are produced) stomata
  125. Liverworts
    flattened, lobed bodies with distinct top and bottom surfaces. have rhizoids
  126. rhizoids
    root-like hairs that project into soil
  127. Mosses
    bryophytes, stem-like bodies with radial leaf-life structures, rhizoids
  128. Moss life cycle
    dominant gametophyte, sporophyte is parasitic upon female gametophyte
  129. moss gametophyte generation
    wind-dispersed spores germinate into protonemia (algae-like filaments), which produce shoots with reproductive organs. male has antheridia, female has archegonia
  130. female archegonia in mosses
    sustains development of sporophytes and prevent embryo from drying out
  131. Moss sporophyte generation
    foot (grows into gametophyte), stalk, upper capsule (sporangium-produces haploid spores by meiosis)
  132. Mosses can ______ bare rock and _______ into soil
    colonize, break it down
  133. Mosses commercial value
    peat moss (soil conditioner, fuel)
  134. Moss distribution
    abundant in Arctic and Antarctic, most diverse in tropics, uncommon in deserts
  135. General characteristics of vascular plants (tracheophytes)
    have vascular tissues, true roots, stems & leaves, and sporophyte generation is dominant
  136. Xylem
    transports water and minerals from soil to plant
  137. phloem
    transports organic materials within plant (sugars, nutrients)
  138. vascular tissues allow for much ______ plants
  139. only the ______ generation has vascular tissue
  140. Seedless vascular plants include:
    club mosses, ferms and their relatives
  141. club mosses
    stems are covered with scalelike leaves, called "ground pines", seedless vascular plants
  142. whisk ferns
    seedless vascular, branching stems w/o leaves or roots
  143. horsetails
    stems with periodic whorls of leaves, seedless vascular
  144. fern structure
    varies from low-lying to tree-sized, has rhizomes and roots, fronds (large leaves)
  145. Rhizomes
    horizontal stems
  146. fronds grow from _____
  147. fern gametophyte generation
    water-dependent, germinating spores form prothallus (contains archegonia & antheridia), sperm require water to reach egg
  148. fern sporophyte generation
    dominant, embryo outgrows archegonium. leaves and roots appear above/below the prothallus. sporangia form spores and develop in sori (covered by indusium). meiosis occurs within sporangia to produce spores
  149. prothallus (ferns)
    small heart-shaped structure, has both archegonia & antheridia
  150. gymnosperms
    "naked seed", no fruit, conifers, pine, spruce trees
  151. angiosperms
    "enclosed seed", has fruit, flowering plants
  152. Seeds
    embryonic sporphytes, stores food for embryo and provides protection
  153. Seeds are ______ dispersal packages
  154. seeds permit a _____ phase of life
  155. pollen grains are ___ ________
    male gametophytes, replace externally swimming sperm
  156. pollination
    transfer of male gametophyte to the vicinity of the femal gametophyte, sperm are delivered through a pollen tube
  157. Cycads
    gymnosperms, cone-bearing palm-like plants native to tropical and subtropical regions
  158. Gingko
    gymnosperms, only on surviving species, resists pollution
  159. gnetophytes
    gymnosperms, three surviving genera
  160. conifers
    cone-bearing, needle-like leaves (retains water well), tolerate temperature extremes, are usually evergreen (gymnosperms!)
Card Set
biology II final
biology unit IV final test flashcards