genetics ch. 12,14,16

  1. metastasis
  2. a process by which cells detach from the primary tumor and move to other sites, forming new malignant tumors in the body
  3. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH)
    In a cell, the loss of normal function in one allele of a gene wher the other allele is already inactivated by a mutation
  4. signal transduction
    a cellular molecular pathway by which an external signal is converted into a functional response
  5. Tumor-suppressor genes
    genes encoding proteins that suppress cell division
  6. Proto-oncogenes
    Genes that initiate or maintain cell division and that may become cancer genes (oncogenes) by mutation
  7. oncogenes
    Genes that induce or continue uncontrolled cell proliferation
  8. Retinoblastoma
    A malignant tumor of the eye arising in retinoblasts (embryonic retinal cells that disappear at about 2 years of age). Because mature retinal cells do not transform into tumors, this is a tumor that usually occurs only in children
  9. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
    An autosomal dominant trait resulting in the development of polyps and benign growths in the colon. Polyps often develop into malignant growths and cause cancer of the colon and/or rectum
  10. Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer
    an autosomal dominant trait associated with genomic instability of microsatellite DNA sequences and a form of colon cancer
  11. Philadelphia Chromosome
    An abnormal chromosome produced by translocation of parts of the long arms of chromosomes 9 and 22
  12. biotechnology
    the use of recombinant DNA technology to produce commercial goods and services
  13. Enzyme replacement therapy
    Treatment of a genetic disorder by providing a missing enzyme encoded by the mutant allele responsible for the disorder
  14. Embryonic stem cells (ESC)
    Cells in the inner cell mass of early embryos that will form all the cells, tissues, and organs of the adult. Because of their ability to form so many different cell types, these cells are called pluripotent cells
  15. pluripotent
    the ability of a a stem cell to form any fetal or adult cell type
  16. Adult stem cells
    Stem cells recovered from bone marrow and other organs of adults. These cells can differentiate to a form a limited number of adult cells, and are called multipotent cells
  17. multipotent
    the restricted ability of a stem cell to form only one or a few diferent cell types
  18. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)
    Adult cells that can be reprogrammed (induced) by gene transfer to form cells with most of the developmental potential of embryonic stem cells. Because of this developmental potential, such cells are called pluripotent
  19. Genetically Modified Organisms
    A general term used to refer to transgenic plants or animals created by recombinant DNA techniques
  20. Transgenic
    Refers to the transfer of genes between species by recombinant DNA technology; transgenic organisms have received such a gene
  21. Minisatellite
    Nucleotide sequences 14 to 100 base pairs long, organized into clusters of varying lengths, on many different chromosomes; used in the construction of DNA fingerprints
  22. DNA fingerprint
    Detection of variatiosn in minisatellites used to identify individuals
  23. Short Tandem Repeat (STR)
    Short nucleotide sequences 2 to 9 bae pairs long found througout the genome that are organized into clusters of varuing lengths; used in the construction of DNA profiles
  24. DNA profile
    The pattern of STR allele frequencies used to identify individuals
  25. Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)
    The collection of techniques used to help infertile couples have children
  26. Intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSI)
    A treatment to overcome defects in sperm count or motility; an egg is fertilized by microinjection of a single sperm
  27. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
    An ART procedure in which gametes are collected and placed into a woman's oviduct for fertilization
  28. Zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT)
    An ART procedure in which gametes are collected, fertilization takes place in vitro and theresulting zygote (fertilized egg) is transferred to a woman's oviduct
  29. in vitro fertilization (IVF)
    A procedure in which gametes are collected and fertilized in a dish in the laboratory; the resulting zygote is implanted in the uterus for development
  30. Preimplantation genetic diagonsis (PGD)
    Removal and genetic analysis of a single cell from a 3- to 5- day old embryo. Used to select embryos free of genetic disorders for implantation adn development
  31. Somatic Gene therapy
    Gene transfer to somatic target cells o correct a genetic disorder
  32. Germ-line gene therapy
    Gene therapy to gametes or the cells that produce them. Transfers a gene to all cells in the next generation, including germ cells
  33. Enhancement gene therapy
    Gene transfers to enhance traits such as intelligence and athletic ability rather than to treat a genetic disorder
  34. Genetic Counseling
    A process of communication that deals with the occurrence or risk of a genetic disorder in a family.
Card Set
genetics ch. 12,14,16
genetics ch. 12/14/16 vocab