1. What is hypokalemia?
    Serum K <3.5
  2. What causes hypokalemia?
    -Transcellular shifts
    -Renal K losses
    • Transcellular: alkalemia, insulin, catecolamines
    • GI: vomiting, NGT drainage, diarrhea, laxative abuse
    • Renal K losses: RTA type IV, Mg depletion, primary mineralcorticoid excess
  3. What are sx of hypokalemia?
    Nausea, vomiting, weakness, muscle cramps
  4. What are hypokalemia EKG changes?
    U waves, ventricular ectopy (PVCs, VT, VF)
  5. How do you dx hypokalemia?
    Clinically, if you can't, can calculate TTKG but it is expensive
  6. How do you tx hypokalemia nl?
    • Replate when <3.5
    • K is best absorbed PO route, so use gut doing K-Dur tablets or KCl liquid
  7. How do you tx hypokalemia via IV?
    • Infuse slowly, no more than 10mEq/hour
    • If central line, can infuse up to 20mEq/hour
  8. How do you tx hypokalemia in a renal failure pt?
    Err on the lower side, esp. if urine output is dropping off
  9. What do you do if your pt K is low despite repletion?
    Check Mg
Card Set
For my upcoming nephrology exam