1. Anticodon
    Three-based sequence in a tRNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA
  2. Bioinformatics
    Computer technologies used to study the genome
  3. Biotechnology Product
    Product created by using biotechnology techniques.
  4. Cloning
    Production of identical copies; can be either the production of identical individuals or, in genetic engineering, the production of identical copies of a gene
  5. Codon
    Three-base sequence in mRNA that causes the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein or termination of translation
  6. Complementary DNA (cDNA)
    DNA that has been synthesized from mRNA by the action of reverse transcriptase
  7. Complementary Paired Bases
    Hydrogen bonding between particular bases; in DNA thymine (T) pairs with adenine (A), and guanine (G) pairs with cytosine (C); in RNA, uracil (U) pairs with A, and G pairs with C
  8. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    Nucleic acid polymer produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar deoxyribose; the genetic material of nearly all organisms
  9. DNA Ligase
    Enzyme that links DNA fragments; used during production of rDNA to join foreign DNA to vector DNA
  10. DNA Replication
    Synthesis of a new DNA double helix prior to mitosis and meiosis in eukaryotic cells and during prokaryotic fission in prokaryotic cells
  11. Double Helix
    Double spiral; describes the three - dimensional shape of DNA
  12. Functional Genomics
    Study of all the nucleotide sequences, including structural genes, regulatory sequences, and nocoding DNA segments, in the chromosomes of an organism
  13. Gene Cloning
    Production of one or more copies of the same gene
  14. Genetic Engineering
    Alteration of DNA for medical or industrail purposes
  15. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    Type of RNA formed from a DNA template that bears coded information for the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
  16. Mutation
    Alteration in chromosome structure or number and also an alteration in gene due to a change in DNA composition
  17. Plasmid
    Self-replicating ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of bacteria
  18. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    Technique that uses the enzyme DNA polymerase to produce millions of copies of a particular piece of DNA
  19. Polyribosome
    String of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis
  20. Proteomics
    The study of all proteins in an organism
  21. Recombinant DNA (rDNA)
    DNA that contains genes from more than one source
  22. Restriction Enzyme
    Bacterial enzyme that stops viral reproduction by cleaving viral DNA; used to cut DNA at specific points during production of recombinant DNA
  23. Ribosomal RNA(rRNA)
    Type of RNA found in ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs
  24. RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    Nucleic acid produced from covalent bonding of nucleotide monomers that contain the sugar ribose; occurs in three forms: messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA
  25. RNA polymerase
    During transcription, an enzyme that joins nucleotides complementary to a DNA template
  26. small RNAs
    Short RNA molecules that help to regulate gene expression
  27. Template
    Pattern or guide used to make copies; parental strand of DNA serves as a guide for the production of daughter DNA strands, and DNA also serves as a guide for the production of messenger RNA
  28. Transcription
    Process whereby a DNA strand serves as a template for the formation of mRNA
  29. Transcription Factor
    In eukaryotes, protein required for the initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase
  30. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    Type of RNA that transfers a particular amino acid to a ribosome during protein synthesis; at one end, in binds to the amino acid, and at the other end it has an anticodon that binds to an mRNA codon
  31. Transgenic Organism
    Free-living organism in the environment that has a foreign gene in its cells
  32. Translation
    Process whereby ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids
  33. Triplet Code
    Each sequence of three nucleotide bases in the DNA of genes stands for a particular amino acid
  34. Uracil (U)
    The base in RNA that replaces thymine found in DNA; pairs with adenine
  35. Vector
    In genetic engineering, a means to transfer foreign genetic material into a cell (e.g., a plasmid)
  36. Xenotransplantation
    Use of animal organs, instead of human organs, in human transplant patients
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