1. Allele
    Alternative form of a genel alleles occur at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
  2. Autosome
    Any chromosome other than the sec chromosomes
  3. Carrier
    Heterozygous individual who has no apparent abormality but can pass on an allele for a recessively inherited genetic disorder
  4. Codominance
    Inheritance pattern in which both alleles of a gene are equally expressed
  5. Color Blindness
    Deficiency in one or more of the three types of cone cells responsible for color vision
  6. Cystic Fibrosis
    A generalized, autosomal recessive disorder of infants and children in which there is widespread dysfunction of the exocrine glands
  7. Dihybrid
    Individual that is heterozygous for two traits; shows the pheotype governed by the dominant alleles but carries the recessive alleles
  8. Dominant Allele
    Allele that exerts its pehotypic effect in the heterozygotel it masks the expression of the recessive allele
  9. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
    Chronic progessive disease affecting the shoulder and pelvic girdles, commencing in early childhood. Characterized by increasing weakness of the muscles, followed by atrophy and a peculiar swaying gait with the lefs kept wide apart. transmitted as X-linked trait, and affected individuals, predominantly males, rarely survive to maturity. Death is usually due to respiratory weakness or heart failure.
  10. Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH)
    Inability to remove cholesterol from the bloodstream; predisposes individual to heart attack
  11. Fragile X Syndrome
    Most common inherited form of mental retardation; results from mutation to a single gene and results in deficiency of a protein critical to brain development
  12. Genotype
    Genes of an individual for a particular trait or traits; often designated by letters, for example, BB or Aa.
  13. Hemophilia
    Genetic disorder in which the affected individual is subject to uncontrollable bleeding.
  14. Heterozygous
    Possessing unlike alleles for a particular trait
  15. Homozygous Dominant
    Possessing two identical alleles, such as AA, for a particular trait
  16. Homozygous Recessive
    Possessing two identical alleles, such as aa, for a particular trait
  17. Huntington Disease
    Genetic disease marked by progerssive deterioration of the nervous system due to deficiency of a neurotransmitter
  18. Incomplete Dominance
    Inheritance pattern in which the offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowered offspring.
  19. Locus
    Particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome. Homologous chromosomes have corresponding gene loci.
  20. Marfan Syndrome
    Congenital disorder of connective tissue characterized by abnormal length of the extremities
  21. Monohybrid
    Individual that is heterozygous for one trait; shows the phenotype of the dominant allele but carries the recessive allele
  22. Multifactorial Trait
    Controlled by several allelic pairs; each dominant allel contributes to the phenotype in an additive and like manner
  23. Multiple Allele
    Inheritance pattern in which there are more than two alleles for a particular trait; each individual has only two fo all possible alleles
  24. Phenotype
    Visible expression of a genotype - for example, brown eyes or attached earlobes
  25. Pheylketonuria (PKU)
    Result of accumulation of phenlalanine, characterized by mental retardationg, light pigmentation, exzema, and neurologic, manifestations unless treated by a diet low in phenylalanine
  26. Polygenic Trait
    Trait is controlled by several allelic pairsl each dominant allele contributes to the phenotype in an additive and like manner
  27. Punnett Square
    Gridlike device used to calculate the expected results of simple genetic crosses
  28. Recessive Allele
    Allele that exerts its phenotypic effect only in the homozygote; its expression is masked by a dominant allele
  29. Sex Chromosome
    Chromosome that determines the sec of an individual; in humans, females have two X chromosomes, and males have an X and Y chromosome.
  30. Sex-Linked
    Allele that occurs on the sex chromosomes but may control a trait that has nothing to do with the sex characteristics of an individual
  31. Sickle-Cell Disease
    Genetic Disorder in which the affected individual has sicle-shaped red blood cells subject to hemolysis
  32. Tay-Sachs Disease
    Letahl genetic disease in which the newborn has a faulty lysosomal digestive enzyme
  33. X-Linked
    Allel located on an X chromosome, but may control a trait that has nothing to do with the sec characteristics of an individual
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