Zoo test two

  1. Homunculus
    Little man (in the sperm cell.)
  2. Inheritance of acquired characters
    Changes that occur during an organism's life can be passed on to the offspring.
  3. Pangenesis
    was proposed for the mechanism for inheritance of acquired characters. Small particles come together from cells throughout the body to form gametes. There was a blending of particles.
  4. Jean Baptiste Lamarack
    was a major proponent of the inheritance of acquired characters. Darwin also reluctantly accepted this.
  5. August Weismen
    began experimental tests to test inheritance of acquired characters. He cut off the tails of rats to see if the tails of the offspring were smaller in time. He found that the tails were always close to the same length.
  6. Grego Mendel
    was a monk. He had an influential physics teacher. Crossed pea plants to see single traits about these plants. (ex. flower color, position, seed color, seed shape, pod shape, pod color, hieght.) He hybridized the plants to cross true breeding varieties. He started with a P generation to start and the next generation was called the F1 generation.
  7. Sources of variation
    come from meiosis. Random assortment and crossing over.
  8. Law of segregation
    Mendel said different forms of genes (alleles) are responsible for variation in inherited traits.
  9. Phenotype
    can be measured or seen.
  10. Genotype
    are the genetic make up of the alleles.
  11. Punnett squares are used to
    predict the ratio of the genotype and phenotype of the offspring.
  12. Genotypic Ratio
    1:2:1 GG:Gg:gg
  13. Phenotypic ratio
    3:1 Green to yellow
  14. Law of independent assortment
    Allele pairs segregate independently from each other.
  15. Law of Independent Assortment doesn't apply to
    linked genes on chromosomes because they are together on the same chromosomes.
  16. Model organism
    decided by scientist to have a study in unison to gather results about their genetics. Reproduce quickly and easy to maintain. (Fruit fly.)
  17. DNA replication
    has several models: Conservative model( Photocopy model), Dispersive Model, Semiconservative model. Semiconservative model is the accepted model.
  18. Antiparallel
    C5' is facing opposite ways on the different sides of the DNA molecule.
  19. Enzymes in DNA synthesis
    DNA helicase, Primase, DNA polymerase(makes a mistake in proof reading about 1/100,000 but is corrected often 1/1,000,000,000 is not corrected.) DNA ligase.
  20. PCR
    allows a person to take a small amount of DNA and make copies of it very rapidly for testing and research. Invented by Kary Mullis. Uses dNTPs ( Nucleotides), DNA polymerase, Template DNA, Water, Mg, and primers.
  21. Chromosomal aberation
    change in the number of chromosomes.
  22. Karyotype
    a way to view the chromosomes of an organism.
  23. Polyploidy
    Addition of complere sets of chromosomes. Common in plants. Can be artificially induced.
  24. Aneuploidy
    addition or subtraction of one chromosome. Results for non-disjunction. Results in Monosomy( one chromosome) Trisomy (three chromosome).
  25. Deletion
    loss of a portion of a chromosome.
  26. Duplication
    gain of a portion of a chromosome.
  27. translocation
    a portion of a chromosome is moved to a new location.(non-homologous.) Can cause a loss of control of a gene in the translocated portion.
  28. Genes that are modified to cause cancer are called
  29. Point mutation
    Changes a single base pair. Common but usually repaired by DNA polymerase.
  30. Most non-neutral mutations are
  31. Missense mutation
    causes an amino acid substitution.
  32. Nonsense mutation
    Changes a codon for an amino acid to a stop codon.
  33. Frameshift mutation
    adds or deletes a base(insertions or deletions) this changes the reading frame.
  34. Macro Evolution
    All of the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest forms to the diversity that characterizes it today.
  35. Micro Evolution
    A change in the allele frequency in a population.
  36. Darwin
    was not a "stamp collector" biologist. He was influenced by Lyell's "Principles of Geology" and its idea of uniformitarianism. Sailed on the british ship called the Beagle (1831-36) He was also influenced by thomas Malthus's ideas on limitations of human population. Darwin married Emma Wedgwood.(His cousin) Had ten children and three died in infancy. Wrote an essay on natural selection in 1844, but did not publish it. Published "On the Origin of Species"
  37. theses in Origin of Species:
    1. all organisms have descended with modification from common ancestors. 2. the chief agent of modification is the action of natural selection on variation.
  38. Mayr's analysis of darwin's theory:
    1. All species have the ability to reproduce and increase exponentially if all the offspring survive. 2. Most populations are normally stable.
  39. evolution is
    not self directed, individuals do not evolve.
  40. Comparative anatomy
    Modification of structures.
  41. Occam's Razor
    The principle of parsimony. " All other things being equal, the simplest solution is most likely the best."
  42. Homology
    Structural similarity is due to a shared evolutionary origin.
  43. Analogy
    Structural similarity do to environmental pressure.
  44. Vestigial organs
    Organs that have lost their function.
  45. Atavisms
    reappearance of lost structures.
  46. Haeckel's Biogenic "Law".
    Ontogeny replicates phylogeny. Embryonic development repeats evolutionary history.
  47. Peppered moth
    had speckled grey wings. Makes them difficult for other animals to see. Melanics appeared in 1849. (darker than normal pepper moths.)
  48. Plasmids
    back up chromosomes for bacteria. Resistance to antibiotics are carried by these. these are transferred from bacteria readily. Even to other species.
Card Set
Zoo test two
test number two.