Adenocarcinomas of the large intestine are most common in which segment?
A) Rectosigmoid colon B) Ascending colon C) Transverse colon D) Descending colon
A) Rectosigmoid colon
Aspiration of material from carious teeth may cause
D) lung abscess
Frequency of impulse activity in the afferent nerve from a muscle spindle (Group a afferent fibers) is increased by a (an) (a) relaxation of intrafusal muscle fibers; (b) increased activity in gammaefferent fibers; (c) passive stretch of the muscle.
B and C
muscle spindle (intrafusal fibers)- sensory receptor in belly of muscle
- detect changes in length of muscle
- aligned parallel to muscle
- sensory and motor components
- axons of gamma motoneurons end in muscle spindles
When a muscle is stretched, primary sensory fibers (Group Ia afferent neurons) of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and velocity and transmit this activity to the spinal cord in the form of changes in the rate of action potentials. Likewise, secondary sensory fibers (Group II afferent neurons) respond to muscle length changes (but with a smaller velocity-sensitive component) and transmit this signal to the spinal cord. The Ia afferent signals are transmitted monosynaptically to many alpha motor neurons of the receptor-bearing muscle. The reflexly-evoked activity in the alpha motoneurons is then transmitted via their efferent axons to the extrafusal fibers of the muscle, which generate force and thereby resist the stretch. The Ia afferent signal is also transmitted polysynaptically through interneurons (Renshaw_cells) which inhibit alpha motoneurons of antagonist muscles, causing them to relax.
A disease of childhood characterized by mental retardation, delayed growth, and delayed tooth eruption is associated with a deficiency of
D) Thyroid Hormone
he observations that typify hemolytic anemias are elevated
hemolysis--> increase bilirubin --> increase urobilinogen (some excreted in urine- urobilin and some in feces- stercobilinogen)
Two-point discrimination requires that two sensory receptors are
C) innervated by 2 diff axons
Which of the following cardiac disorders is subject to infective endocarditis secondary to a bacteremia from oral microorganisms?
(a) Tetralogy of Fallot ;
(b) Congenital aortic stenosis;
(c) Patent ductus arteriosus;
(d) Ventricular septal defect
All of the above which are congenital heart defects
Tetralogy of Fallot- blue baby syndrome; most common cyanotic heart defect
- associated w/ chromosome 22 deletions and DIGEORGE SYNDROME
Suppuration is mainly the result of the combined action of four factors. Which of the following is NOT one of these factors?
A) presence of lymphocytes
The maximal number of impulses that a nerve fiber can carry is determined by which of the following?
Jaundice is characteristic of all of the following conditions EXCEPT
A) Aplastic anemia
jaundice= yellowing of sclera of eye and skin from hyperbilirubinemia
Aplastic anemia= bone marrow doesn't produce enough new cells to replenish RBCs
- results in lower blood cell counts of all 3 types: RBCs, WBC,s platelets= pancytopenia
One week ago, two teeth were extracted because of periapical abscesses. Drainage of a soft, fluctuant swelling in the area of extraction elicits a quantity of foul-smelling, purulent material. Which of the following organisms are likely to be involved?
Bacteroides and Peptostreptococcus
- anaerobic gram + bacteria
- normal flora of mouth and gut and skin
- opportunistic infection that can cause brain,liver, breast, lung abscess and necrotizing soft tissue infections
2. Bacteroides- Gram (-) bacillus anaerobic bacteria but can live in air still (oral cavity)
- abundant in GI flora
- resistant to many antibiotics
Which of the following is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system?
A) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
B) Multiple sclerosis
C) Alzheimer's disease
D) Parkinson's disease
- demyelination of brain and spinal cord
- most common in young females
- neurological defects
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can directly infect all of the following cells EXCEPT
- type of scar made up of either type III (early- reticulin) or type I (late-collagen)
- Keloids are firm, rubbery lesions or shiny, fibrous nodules, and can vary from pink to flesh-coloured or red to dark brown in colour. A keloid scar is benign, non-contagious, and sometimes accompanied by severe itchiness and pains, and changes in texture. In severe cases, it can affect movement of skin.
- vasculitis that can ulcerate; overactive immune system
- inflammation that affects blood vessels
1. genital ulcers
2. oral aphthous ulcers
3. eye inflammation
- can have changes in personality, NS symptoms, DVT, arthritis