Research Methods Exam 2

  1. What are control groups?
    • Used to address threats to internal validity (history, maturation, selection, and testing)
    • Ensure that one group in the design shares these influences with the intervention group but does not receive the intervention
  2. What is a 'no-treatment' control group?
    • It answers the basic question of what would hapen without treatment
    • Assessed but receives no treatment
    • Significan ethical problems
  3. What is a 'waiting list' control group?
    • Delayed treatment and then treatment is provided
    • Promised treatment within a specified length of time and are scheduled for appointments
  4. What are the pros and cons of the 'waiting list' control group?
    Pros: Subjects are more willing to participate; allows careful evaluation of the treatment effects at different points in time

    Cons: Long-term impact of history, maturation, and repeated testng cannot be evaluated;
  5. What is a 'non-specific' treatment control group?
    • Separates the treatment from the placebo effect
    • Subjects attend treatment sessions and have personal contact with the therapist
    • Cons: sets up control group to not trust psychotherapy in the future
  6. What is an alternative to a 'non-specific' control group?
    Have a common therapy factor control group where they are given a non-specific treatment of empathic understanding, positive regard, and congruence while the treatment group gets this plus the treatment technique
  7. What is the standard treatment design?
    When a new treatment is compared with the standard one that is provided
  8. What are the pros and cons of the standard treatment design?
    Pros: Most ethical issues are taken care of; Attrition is decreased; Placebo effect is controlled for; Therapists are more interested in participating

    Cons: Standard treatment often becomes sloppy and inconsistent so the comparison may not be fair
  9. What is a yoked control group?
    the subjects are matched across groups by pairing subjects and the experimenter ensures that both subjects are equal on potentially confounding variable, such as initial severity of symptoms
  10. What is a non-equivalent control group?
    Not part of the original subject pool or not randomly assigned, but can help rule out alternative explanations of the data
  11. What does selection of a type of control group depend on?
    • What the experimenter is trying to do
    • Whether one is trying to strengthen internal validity, external validity, or construct validity
    • How much research has accumulated in the area and what has been established
  12. What is a treatment package strategy?
    • Whether a particular treatment or treatment package (treatment may be multifaceted and include several different components)
    • Treatment vs. no treatment or waitng list control
  13. What is a dismantling treatment strategy?
    • Analyzing the components of a given treatment package
    • Individual components are elimiated or isolated from the treatment
    • Some clients may receive the entire treatment package while other clients receive a package minus one or more components
    • Two or more treatment groups that vary in components of treatment provided
  14. What is an advantage of the dismantling treatment strategy?
    Can help identify the necessary and sufficient components of treatment
  15. What is a constructive treatment strategy?
    • A treatment package that has added components to enhance outcome
    • Explores whether the treatment effect can be enhanced
    • Ex: adding verbal psychotherapy to pharmacotherapy
    • Two or more treatment groups that vary in components of treatment provided
  16. What is a parametric treatment study?
    • Altering specific aspects of treatment to determine how to maximize therapeutic change, not adding anything new
    • Ex: increases in duration of treatment or variations in how material is presented
    • Two or more treatment groups that difer in one or more facets of the treatment
  17. What is a comparative-treatment strategy?
    • Which treatment is better for a particular clinical problem
    • Ex: psychoanalysis v. behavior therapy, CBT v. medication, family therapy v. individual therapy
    • 2 or more different treatments for a given clinical problem
  18. What is a treatment-moderator strategy?
    • The effectiveness of treatments can vary as a function of client characteristics, therapist characteristics, and context in which the client functions
    • Statistically, when there is an interaction treatment status and another IV
    • Ex: studying the effects of a given treatment depending upon diagnositc comorbitiy
    • Treatment as applied seperately to different types of cases, such as gender, race/ethnicity, diagnosis, substance abuse
  19. What is the treatment-mediatory strategy?
    • A study of the mechanisms of change in therapy: Through what processes does theray lead to, or cause, change? ; What transpires between the delivery of an intervention and the ultimate impact on clients
    • Treatment groups in which client and therapist interactions are evaluated within sessions
  20. What is an observational study?
    • The investigator evaluates the variables of interest by observing groups that "natre" has manipulated, rather than the researcher manipulating the variable
    • Can be descriptive, exploratory, or test theoretical models
  21. What are the statistics for observational studies?
    Correlations, but can move to implied causality by using covariates/hierarchical analyses (controlling for demographics or other confounds) and structural equations modeling (specifying a causal model and seeing if it fits the data).
  22. What are case control studies?
    investigations with groups that vary in outcome or characteristic of interest
  23. What is a cross-sectional case control study?
    Evaluates a range of characteristics that are currently evident
  24. What is a retrospective case control study?
    Evaluating a range of characteristics that are currently evident
  25. How case control studies helpful?
    • They are helpful in identifying risk factors
    • Efficient in time and resources
    • No attrition
  26. What is a disadvantage of case control studies?
    Causality is more difficult to argue for because of no literal time gap
  27. What is a cohort study?
    A group of individuals are followed over time and are assessed before the outcome has occurred
  28. What is a single group cohort design?
    • A group that has not yet experienced the outcome of interest is assessed on multiple occasions and followed over time.
    • Later, subgroups are delineated as those who do or don't show the outcome of interest
    • Predictors can then be identified
  29. What is an accelerated multicohort longitudinal design?
    • cohorts of different ages begin the study and are followed over time, and the time to finish the study is shortened
    • Establishes that the predictor occurred before the outcome; however can take time and money to follow subjects
    • attriction is a problem
  30. What is program evaluation?
    Carefully collecting info about a program or some aspect of a program in order to make necessary decisions about the program
  31. Name different types of program evaluations
    • Needs assessment
    • Accreditation
    • Cost/benefit analysis
    • Effectiveness
    • Efficiency
    • Formative
    • Summative
    • Goal-based
    • Process
    • Outcomes
  32. What are the advantages of program evaluation?
    • Understand, verify or increase the impact of products or services on customers
    • Improve delivery mechanisms to be more efficient and less costly
    • Verify that you're doing what you think you're doing
    • Facilitate management's really thinking about what their program is all about (goals, how it meets goals)
    • Produce data or verify results
    • If cuts have to be made, produce valid comparisons between programs to decide which is retained
    • Fully examine and describe effective programs for duplication elsewhere
  33. What should an organization have?
    • The board should be in good working order
    • The organization should be staffed and organized to conduct activities to work toward the mission of the organization
    • There should be no current crisis
  34. What should a program have?
    • A strong impression of what your customers or clients actually need
    • Some effective methods to meet those needs
  35. What are key components of programs?
    • Inputs
    • Processes
    • Outputs
    • Outcomes
  36. What is an input?
    the various resources needed to run the program
  37. What is a process?
    How the program is carried out
  38. What is an output?
    The units of service
  39. What is an outcome?
    The impacts on the customers or on clients receiving services
  40. What is a goal-based evaluation?
    The extent to which programs are meeting predetermined goals or objectives
  41. What is a process-based evaluation?
    To fully understand how a program works -- how does it produce the results that it produces
  42. What are outcome-based evaluations?
    Is the organization really doing the right program activities to bring about the outcomes you believe to be needed by your clients?
  43. What are the 4 levels of evaluation info that can be gathered from clients?
    • Reactions and feelings (feelings are often poor indicators that your service made lasting impact)
    • Learning (enhanced attitudes, perceptions or knowledge)
    • Changes in skills (applied the learning to enhance behaviors)
    • Effectiveness (improved performance because of enhanced behavior)
  44. What are some ethical factors that participants should be aware of?
    • What you're doing with them in the evaluation and how any info associated with them will be reported
    • Terms of confidentiality
    • The right to participate or not
  45. What is meta-analysis (MA)?
    a method to integrate multiple empirical studies into a single study of studies.
  46. What info does a MA yield?
    A summary of statistics of interest: descriptives, correlations, group differences, proportions, odds ratios, etc.
  47. MA benefits science because of:
    • our natural human limitations of holding info
    • Individual studies can be contradictory
    • small effect sizes can be difficult for an individual study to detect because of power problems
    • Bringing small studies together increases statistical power
  48. What does a good MA start with?
    • A good database search
    • lots of reading
  49. What details of the MA studies should be noted?
    • Contructs and how they are operationalized
    • Statistics of interest, usually effect size
    • Traditional correlations
    • N; effect sizes are weighted with larger N's
    • Methodology rigor (random selections, comparison groups, random assignment, and measurement validity)
    • Other potential moderating or mediating variables
  50. What are the steps of MA data analysis?
    • Check the hypothesis that the effect sizes are homogeneous
    • If the effect sizes are heterogeneous, what are the moderating/mediating influences
    • If effect sizes are heterogeneous and not moderating/mediating influences, randome variances must be used when calculating overall effect size
  51. What are some disadvantages of non-experimental case studies?
    • Basic threats to internal validity aren't ruled out
    • Rely on clinical judgment and interpretation
    • Subject to bias
    • External validity is always an issue
  52. Why is autocorrelation an issue?
    • Raw scores are calculated, not the error
    • Least square statistics (MRC) appropriate
  53. Describe a single case experiment?
    • Instruments must have high reliability and validity
    • Observations are collected continuously (e.g. OQ)
  54. Describe a simple single case design
    • There are 3 baseline periods of collecting observations before treatment
    • 3 treatment periods of collecting observations
    • If all of the treatment observations are below the baseline = statistically significant and p > .05
  55. Disadvantage of simple single case design
    • This doesn't work when there is a trend in the data or a slope
    • Works best with a stairstep
  56. What is Moral Principle 1?
    • Respect for persons and their autonomy
    • Participation is a matter of their autonomous choice
    • Persons have diminished autonomy, they require special concern
  57. What is Moral Principle 2?
    • Beneficence and nonmaleficence
    • Researcher should maximize the possible benefits and minimize the possible harms from the research
  58. What is Moral Principle 3?
    • Justice
    • Distributive justice is the proper distribution of benefits and burdens; procedural justice is the adequacy of procedures to ensure fairness
  59. What is Moral Principle 4?
    • Trust
    • Participation is based on explicit agreement about what the participant will experience and its consequences, and the researcher's obligations
  60. What is Moral Principle 5?
    • Fidelity and scientific integrity
    • The researcher is committed to the discovery and promulgation of truth; scientific integrity (truthfulness) is not open to compromise
  61. When you're planning research what risks should be assessed?
    • Physical risk (injury or illness)
    • Psychological risk (boredom, depression, anxiety)
    • Social risk (loss of important social relationships)
    • Economic risk (loss of opportunity for job)
    • Legal risk (arrest, data subpoenaed)
  62. When does coercion exist?
    • If individuals cannot refuse to participate in research
    • If refusal causes a substantial loss
    • If individuals believe that participation is not truly voluntary
  63. In what populations does coercion readily occur?
    • Prisoners
    • Military personnel
    • Patients employees
    • Children
    • Students
  64. What is informed consent?
    A process that includes a clear statement of the purposes, procedures, risks, and benefits of the research project, as well as obligations and commitments of both the participants and the researchers

    Consent should be voluntary, informed, ongoing throughout the study
  65. What is privacy?
    A person's right in controlling other people's access to info about him or herself
  66. What is confidentiality?
    The right to maintain private info divulged in the course of a professional relationship with the researcher. Has to do with agreements with the person about what may be done with their data
  67. What is a requirement of research with deception?
    Individuals must be debriefed
  68. What are the benefits of debriefing?
    Can ease the negative effects of dceoption
  69. What are 3 means of evaluating clinical significance of change?
    • Comparison Method
    • Subjective Evaluation
    • Social Impact
  70. What is the criteria for eaclauating treatment procedures?
    • Disseminability
    • Cost
    • Acceptability of Treatment
  71. What is a case study?
    • An intensive study of the individual, however could also be a family, group, institution, state, country, etc.
    • The information has traditionally been in narrative style and is richly detailed.
    • Efforts are made to convey the complexity of the case.
    • The information is often retrospective, where past influences are used to account
    • for the current situation.
  72. What important contributions have anecdotal research made to psychological research?
    • They have been a source of ideas and
    • hypotheses about human performance and development.
    • They have served as the source for developing therapy techniques.
    • They permit the study of rare phenomena.
    • They are valuable in providing a counter-instance for situations that are considered universal.
    • They have persuasive and motivational value.
  73. What are some limitations of the anecdotal case study?
    • They rely heavily on clinical judgment and interpretation, and are often based on client reports, which can be distorted and highly selective.
    • None of the basic threats to internal validity are usually ruled out.
    • Difficult to know whether the results generalize to other individuals or situations.
  74. What inferences are made in a single case experiment?
    inferences are made about the effects of an intervention by comparing different conditions presented to the same subject over time.
  75. What is continuous assessment?
    observations on multiple occasions over time before and during the period in which the intervention is administered.
  76. What is baseline assessment?
    Assessment for period before the implementation of the intervention
  77. What is the stability of the performance?
    how variable that performance is over time
  78. What is "use of different phases?"
    periods of time in which a condition is implemented and data are collected
  79. What is an ABAB design?
    2 separate phases alternated over time including baseline condition when no intervention is in effect and the intervention condition' phases repeated again to complete the four phases
  80. What are the cons of ABAB designs?
    Problematic for clinical work, because withdrawing treatment does not always show a change in behavior and continued performance of appropriate behavior is desired
  81. What is a multiple baseline design?
    • Includes multiple behaviors, individuals and situations
    • Better for clinical work because it demonstrates the effect of an intervention without a return to baseline condition
    • intervention is applied in a gradual or sequential way across different situations
  82. What is a changing criterion design?
    with a baseline phase after which an intervention is introduced, and the specific level of performance is chosen as a criterion for the client; when the performance meets or surpasses the criterion level the client is rewarded; when the performance consistently meets the criterion, the criterion is made more stringent.
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Research Methods Exam 2
research methods