Hist 361

  1. Dr. Edward Bancroft
    Revolutionary War. First double agent. After his death it was found that he was a loyalist, but Washington sent him to the French court to begin US intelligence, where he reported to the British on American-French relations. Bancroft was successful in being a double agent (was never caught) but was ineffective in helping the British to stop France from allying with the Americans.
  2. Culper Spy Ring
    Revolutionary War. Organized by Benjamin Tallmadge, recruited people in NY to run intelligence operations for Washington. Robert Townsend was in NY running the ring. Reported on British troop movements.
  3. James Lovell
    Revolutionary War. 1st American cryptanalyst – “father of American cryptanalysis,” specialized in devising and breaking codes. 711 stood for Washington DC, 727 stood for NYC. Had a key role in deciphering any intercepts from the British.
  4. Allan Pinkerton
    Civil War. American detective, recruited to be eyes and ears of General McClellan of the Union, foiled an assassination plot in Baltimore of Abraham Lincoln, Lincoln came to DC in the middle of the night.
  5. Inquiry
    WWI, Formed 1917, operated through 1919. Set up by Wilson, led by Walter Lippmann who recruited people to be used as experts on all European affairs so that Wilson would know as much or more than European leaders at the end of the war.
  6. Black Tom Affair
    1916, The German sabotage of a pier in New York harbor to prevent munitions from being sent to the allied forces during WWI. Showed the lack of US counterespionage (since there were German spies in the US) and acted as a major factor leaving to US entry in WWI.
  7. Sir William Wiseman
    WWI, British agent sent to the US to convince Wilson to join the allies in WWI. Acted as a liaison between Wilson and the British government, also became friends with William Stephenson, the Canadian British agent known as ‘Intrepid’ during WWII
  8. Zimmerman Telegram
    1917 (WWI), German message to Mexico telling them to attack the US. In return Mexico would get all of its territories back from the US (Texas, Arizona). British bring in US representatives to convince Americans the telegram is real. Wilson gives telegram to the press – brings a wave of US enthusiasm to go to war with Germany.
  9. ONI
    Established in 1882, Office of Naval Intelligence. One of only 3 intelligence offices to be kept at the end of the Civil War. Oldest member of the US intelligence community, senior intelligence agency in the armed forces. Responsible for countersabotage and counterespionage.
  10. Herbert Yardley
    WWI, “father of US cryptology.” Head of the Black Chamber, US cryptanalysis office in NY which was in charge of decrypting Japanese messages. Broke Japanese diplomatic code, allowed US to negotiate a 5-2 ratio of US to Japanese ships that would be allowed after the Japanese were defeated in the war during the Washington Naval Conference. Secretary of State Stimson under President Hoover cuts all funding for the Black Chamber during the Great Depression, Yardley writes a book outlining how the Black Chamber broke Japanese code. The Japanese paid Yardley to stop working on their code, but in 1930 Yardley went to work for the Chinese against Japan and when WWII broke out Yardley went to work for Canada, never again gets involved in US cryptanalysis.
  11. Virginia Hall
    WWII American spy. Spoke 5 languages, worked under Vichy government in France through the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), coordinating the resistance effort. Escaped from the Germans to Spain and eventually joined the OSS Special Operations branch, again coordinating the French resistance. Donovan awarded her the Distinguished Service Cross for her service at the end of the war.
  12. William Donovan
    WWII, head of OSS, named Coordinator of Intelligence (COI) in 1941. Won medal of honor in WWI. Had many eastern connections due to his law practice (supported some people’s claims that the OSS was a group of communist sympathizers). Under his leadership the OSS would eventually conduct successful espionage and sabotage operations in Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, but it was kept out of South America and the South Pacific/Far East.
  13. William Friedman
    Head of Army Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) in 1929 which was the successor to the Black Chamber. In the 1920’s SIS had only 10 employees, but grew in WWII when SIS built the Purple Analog Machine, could decipher codes faster than Japanese analogue machines and revolutionized American intelligence for Japanese diplomatic traffic.
  14. Black Chamber
    WWI cryptography department of the US. Led by Herbert Yardley. Telegraph companies sent all Japanese diplomatic messages through the Black Chamber. Yardley broke Japanese diplomatic code, allowed US to negotiate a 5-2 ratio of US to Japanese ships that would be allowed after the Japanese were defeated in the war. 1929 – Great Depression, Secretary of State Stimson under President Hoover cuts all funding for the Black Chamber.
  15. Joe Rochefort
    WWII, – in charge of Navy HYPO office in Hawaii, begin to attack JN-25 after Pearl Harbor attack and broke it by April 1942. convinced that the Japanese navy will next attack Midway and tries to convince Admiral Nimitz, head of US fleet in Pacific, but Washington’s Redmond brothers control US Navy and do not believe Rochefort because they think the next target is the Aleutian Islands. In Japanese codes, Rochefort believes AF means Midway: Rochefort tells Midway to say over radio that they are short of water, Japanese next send a message saying “AF short of water” – proves Rochefort is right. Redmond brothers still do not believe him, but Nimitz does – saves Midway.
  16. Purple
    WWII Japanese Diplomatic Code, 1939. Japanese assumed it was unbreakable (and did not change it for the entire war) but Friedman/SIS built the Purple Analog Machine which could read Purple faster than the Japanese. SIS agreed to let the Navy report Purple interceptions to Roosevelt on odd days while they would report on even days (Odd Even Agreement), since the Navy could not read JN-25, which led to Pearl Harbor intelligence failures.
  17. Stanley Finch
    1908, First director of the Bureau of Investigation, which eventually became the FBI.
  18. Palmer Raids
    1919-20, attempts by the US Dept of Justice to arrest left wing radicals led by Attorney General Palmer. Occurred during the Red Scare, which was the US fear of political radicals after WWI. Arrested thousands of people, though less than 1000 were deported as aliens.
  19. OP-20-G
    1930’s and WWII Navy Sigint department. Created by Laurence Stafford in 1930’s to deal with Japanese cryptanalysis. Prior to WWII in charge of deciphering JN-25 but could not break it until after the Pearl Harbor attack from Japan.
  20. Japanese Analog Machine
    Created by Friedman and the Army’s SIS, could read Purple faster than the Japanese. In 1941, 14 part message comes to DC, US read it before the Japanese and it says “war inevitable,” “break relations,” “destroy codes and ciphers”. US does not know where attack will come, FDR warns commanders at Pearl Harbor that war with Japan was coming, but Purple did not tell where
  21. JN 25
    Used beginning in 1940, WWII Japanese Naval Code. US Navy’s OP-20-G was in charge of deciphering the code, but was unsuccessful until after Pearl Harbor, but continued to collect enciphered messages, by April 1942 the code had been broken (by Rochefort) and they read clearly that Japan was planning t attack Pearl Harbor. Japanese never changed the code for all of WWII.
  22. Humint
    Human Intelligence, refers to intelligence gathering by humans as opposed to via machines (SIGINT)has more problems than SIGINT: Double agents – can information be believed; How good/worthwhile is the information; How can information be communicated securely; HUMINT deals only in tiny scraps of information, which may be wrong
  23. “Blinker” Hall
    WWI head of British SIGINT office, Room 40. British Director of Naval Intelligence from 1914-19. Room 40 decoded the Zimmerman Telegram, which was essential to get the US to enter WWI.
  24. Room 40
    WWI British SIGINT office, in charge of British cryptography. Decoded German messages, the most important of which was the Zimmerman Telegram, sent from Germany to Mexico telling Mexico to attack the US, which led to the US entry into WWI
  25. Enigma
    enciphering rotor machine used to encrypt messages invented by Arthur Serbius in 1928. Used by Nazi Germany in WWII, Germans thought Enigma was unbreakable, and used it in German army, navy, and air force. The traffic intercepted from the Enigma machine was called “Ultra” by allied forces.
  26. Maxwell Papurt
    1944, he was an OSS officer and a member of OSS X-2 (elite group in OSS that dealt with Ultra), Papurt made a date with Life Magazine photographer Margaret Bourke White (although he was married). At the last moment, he receives key Ultra information, puts it in his coat pocket before his date, during which he and Margaret came under fire by Germans and forced to surrender. 2 weeks later, Germans release Margaret, but interrogate Papurt for the rest of the war. Papurt said he knew nothing about where Ultra came from or what it involved, and Germans believed him. Germans changed Enigma settings, but only for one month. The next month, it was changed back and the allies could again read Ultra traffic – showed German arrogance.
  27. Marian Rejewski
    WWII, led Polish effort against Nazis to read Ultra, Tried to decipher with pen and paper – inefficient and untimely intelligence. Poles were able to attack enigma, though decryption was inconsistent. British cryptographers get Polish cryptographers out to help the allied war effort.
  28. Feliks Dzerzhinsky
    WWI (and after), head of CHEKA, formed December 7, 1917 under Lenin. CHEKA was Soviet intelligence service.
  29. R V Jones
    In 1939, while working at Bletchley Park, this leading British Scientist determined that the Oslo Report which reported on German advances in technology, research in bacterial and chemical weapons, helicopter and jet fighter plans, and flying bombs (cruise missiles), is genuine. He compared Germany to allied development – British spitfire, US B-29, Mustang, and P-38 fighter jets were superior. He warns the British that Germans are close to developing all of these very modern weapons.
  30. Sigaba
    WWII, US used this rotor machine to encipher US messages. Far more secure than German maching (20 rotors to change letters compared to Ultra’s 3).
  31. Alan Turing
    Led Britain’s Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Hut 8. Mechanizes efforts of Polish and French to allow near-real time intelligence for British. At first Bletchley Park uses the bombe – a machine that went through all possible enigma code settings, but he developed 1st computer (the Colossus) which instigated machine attack on the German Enigma machine.
  32. “On the Roof Gang”
    Started in 1929, the ONI’s group of radio operators taught to intercept Japanese traffic. Taught on the top floor of the Navy department in Washington DC.
  33. Ultra
    WWII traffic from German enigma machine. Used by every branch of the German military as well as German intelligence division and invented by Arthur Serbius in 1928. Main SIGINT source in the European theater during the war, though not critical to victory, it sped up progress of the allies during WWII
  34. Bletchley Park
    WWII site of Britain’s Government Code and Cipher School. Led by Alan Turing, dealt with intercepting and decrypting Ultra traffic from the Germans using the bombe and Colossus.
  35. Arthur Serbius
    Inter-war years figure, German engineer who created an enciphering machine in 1918 to encrypt business transmissions, but it was adapted by Germany to be their military enciphering device, Enigma in the mid-1920’s. Enigma and its traffic, Ultra, played a significant role in the allied war effort of WWII.
  36. XX Committee
    aka the Double Cross System, WWII Humint deception in Britain. British MI5 turned every German agent (Abwehr and SD agents) in Britain to be a double agent to provide disinformation to Germans. Double Committee of MI6 turned German agents into double agents for allies. Radio double agents – agent transmitted messages containing disinformation to Germany. Helps in the success of the allied invasion at Normandy (D-Day)
  37. FUSAG
    1944 “first US army group” was a fake army, intended to deceive Germans on where the allied second front would be coming. The Germans knew General George S Patton as the most widely known US General, and assumed that he would be leading the troops into France. The Allies knew this, and sent Patton, in charge of the take FUSAG from Dover, England to Pas de Calais, France. The deception worked very well and kept many German forces away from Normandy.
  38. Jedburgh Team
    WWII, in the OSS’s Special Operations Branch (SO) and the British Special Operations Executive (SOE), four person teams would drop behind enemy lines in France, Holland, and Belgium to help the resistance effort, promoting geurilla warfare against the Nazis. Represented the first real effort between SOE and OSS. The OSS also had some teams in the far East.
  39. Sidney Souers
    1946, First Director of Central Intelligence in the Central Intelligence Group (CIG), which became the CIA. Appointed by Truman in January, he was relieved of duty in July
  40. CIG
    1946-47, Central Intelligence Group, established under the National Intelligence Authority in 1946 to plan and coordinate foreign intelligence activities. Was abolished by National Security Act, which created the CIA in 1947.
  41. OSS
    WWII, Office of Strategic Services, forerunner to the CIA. Led by William Donovan. Prior to WWII Donovan had made a plan for a peacetime intelligence agency, and FDR appointed him Coordinator of Intelligence (CoI), which during WWII became the OSS. Influenced by British SOE. Not allowed in Latin America or much of the far East due to US military hostility toward a new intelligence organization, therefore blocked from most SIGINT. OSS operated in Europe, the Middle East, and some of Asia (China, Burma).
  42. Frank Wisner
    WWII, head of OSS operations in southeastern Europe (Turkey and Romania) to spy on the Soviets. Recruited to the CIA in 1947
  43. Operation FORTITUDE
    WWII deception operations used by the Allies to convince Germany where the allied second front would come. FORTITUDE NORTH – allies would attack in Norway, FORTITUDE SOUTH – allies would attack in Pas de Calais. South was the Most widely used disinformation, aimed at Hitler, bigger campaign. Fortitude was mostly used by British, Calais was shortest point between UK and France, made sense to Germans that allies would attack there.
  44. Redmond Brothers
    1942 WWII, controlled the US Naval operations from Washington, DC. Do not believe Rochefort because they think the next target is the Aleutian Islands rather than Midway. They will not yield and send forces to Midway, but Admiral Nimitz, head of the Navy in the Pacific, believes Rochefort and sends fighter jets there, which wins the battle for the allies. Later Nimitz nominates Rochefort for the Distinguished Service Medal, but it is blocked by the Redmond Brothers and end up transferring (demoting) Rochefort.
  45. Capt. William Martin
    1944 WWII, cadaver used in Operation MINCEMEAT. outfitted it in British captain’s uniform as well as papers calling him “Captain William Martin” and describing the allied plan to attack Sardinia. The Allies wanted to convince Germans they were attacking island of Sardinia, not Sicily. The British let the cadaver go in Atlantic off of Spain, Spanish turned the disinformation over to Hitler. Britain knew the Spaniards would not perform an autopsy (Catholic country) – if they had they would have found the body did not die of drowning. Highly successful operation, MINCEMEAT was part of operation HUSKY – invasion of Sicily.
  46. William Stephenson
    WWII, Canadian British agent known as Intrepid. Sent to the US to help UK-US alliance and get the US to join allied WWII effort as well as to encourage the US to create a peacetime intelligence Organization. Influenced Donovan in his creation of Coordinator of Information which became the OSS. Biographers embellished his story and made him seem much closer to FDR and Churchill than he really was, but he still helped relations between the two countries.
  47. SOE
    WWII, British Special Operations Executive, Intelligence group in Britain focused on sabotage and guerilla warfare. Collaborated with OSS in the war to help resistance in occupied Europe.
  48. EOU
    WWII, “Enemy Objectives Unit,” part of Research and Analysis (R&A) branch of the OSS. Led by Richard Hughes of Britain and Walk Rostow of the US. Operates out of London and has the most influence of any analysis branch of the OSS. Tries to determine how to best use allied bombing raids against Germany by examining its economy and “choke points” that would hurt the Nazi war effort, known as the “oil offensive.”
  49. Sir Arthur Harris
    WWII, head of British Royal Air Force (RAF) bombing plans. During the EOU’s oil offensive, Harris is unconvinced that American plans to bomb choke points such as fighter jet production plants and oil facilities are worthwhile. He insists on bombing German occupied cities and killing people instead, a strategic error on his part.
  50. Operation SUNRISE
    1945, Arrangement of separate peace with Germans in Italy. Key success of Alan Dulles of the OSS Secret Intelligence Branch (SI). Dealt directly with SS General Karl Wolff to arrange peace.
  51. X-2
    WWII, Counterespionage branch of the OSS. US liaison with British intelligence. X-2 had access to Ultra (OSS generally did not) – elite, secret group. Early on, was inexperienced in the intelligence business (Papurt story)
  52. Benjamin Church
    Revolutionary war, British spy and trusted advisor to George Washington. Was caught and sent to the West Indies
  53. Benedict Arnold
    Revolutionary War, 1779-1780, trusted by George Washington, helps to win Battle of Saratoga and put in command of Philadelphia. Begins to accumulate debt, marries a loyalist and initiates contact with the British if they pay him to spy. Americans discover that Arnold was planning to give up West Point, but Arnold escapes. Washington never captures Arnold, he ends up leading the American Legion against the revolutionaries, dies in London in 1801.
  54. Thaddeus Lowe
    Civil War, inventor of the gas-raised balloon. Balloons could be used for reconnaissance, could communicate with Union forces by flags or telegraph. Confederates did not have advanced balloons, came up with “quaker guns” – logs painted black to look like cannons from above. New technology used for intelligence gathering in the Civil war
  55. Trent Affair
    Civil war, Confederates want to create a navy, so they send Madison and Slidell to London to collect munitions to get around union blockade. Come back to US on British ship Trent, but intercepted by union ship and taken to New England jail. British become angry that their ship was captured by union, mobilize British troops to the Canadian border, Lincoln is forced to apologize and set Madison and Slidell free. They return to London and get the Alabama and Florida, both were successful in raiding the union blockade but both are eventually sunk.
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Hist 361
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