PSYC 310 Ch. 11

  1. Self-understanding begins with the arrival of _____ in the second year; continues to evolve throughout ____ and _____ into a rich, multifaceted view of the self
    • self-awareness
    • childhood and adolescence
  2. a building awareness that out body is a distinct entity (3 months)
  3. this results from experiences with how their own actions cause predictble responses in others
  4. to perceive yourself as a unique being
  5. around the age of ______, toddlers began to rub their noses when viewing red dots on them in a mirror
    20 months
  6. self-recognition is well-established by age _________.
  7. in 2-year-olds, a stronger sense of self-awareness leads to stronger assertions of _________.
    "Rights" (MINE!)
  8. 2 year-olds stronger assertions of "Rights" are not signs of selfishness, but rather of a developing "selfhood", clarification of _________ between self and others.
  9. Language Development permits children to _______.
    express themselves
  10. Between 18 and 30 months the "______ self" emerges.
  11. classification of the self according to salient ways in which people differ (e.g. size, shape, gender)
    Categorical self
  12. refers to one's private thoughts and imaginings
    internal self
  13. Children begin to refer to their own mental states after age ____.
  14. coherent understanding of their own and others' rich mental lives
    Theory of Mind
  15. understanding of mental life is limited in that they think people always act according to their desires; do not yet understand the influence of beliefs on behaviors.
    Desire Theory of Mind (age 2)
  16. understanding that both beliefs and desires influence behavior
    Belief-Desire Theory of Mind (age 4)
  17. Factors that contribute to the development of a theory of mind:
    • language
    • cognitive abilities
    • social interactions
    • make-believe play
  18. the sum total of the abilities, attributes, and attitudes that you believe define who you are
  19. Preschoolers' self-concepts are largely based on ______.
    Concrete characteristics (e.g. appearance, possessions)
  20. Children as young as _____ can demonstrate an appreciation for what makes them unique ("I don't like playing with that")
  21. Between ages 8-11 self-discriptions begin to include _______ and _______, indicating greater cognitive maturity
    personality triats and abilities
  22. Between ages 8-11, Mead argues the "self" develops as a _________.
    generalized other
  23. a blend of what we imagine others think of us
    generalized other
  24. Between the ages 8-11, children begin to include both positive and negative traits, due to their experiences with _________.
    social comparison
  25. Adolescence begin to unify separate trits into ______.
    higher-order, more abstract concepts
  26. In adolescence, pressure to present different selves to others leads to _____
  27. at this age, they begin to use qualifiers, emphasize social virtues more, and develop a coherent narrative about self and others.
  28. The self-concept is influenced by:
    • cognitive factors
    • social factors
    • cultural factors
  29. the judgements we make about our own worth and how we feel about those judgements
  30. Why do children become self-evaluative as soon as the "categorical self" evolves?
    because now there are features that can be judged positively or negatively
  31. At age _____, children begin to call others' attention to their achievements; they then smile or turn away, depending on the reaction they receive.
  32. By age ____, emotions of pride and shame are linked to self-evaluation
  33. preschoolers are not yet able to distinguish between their _____ and _____ selves, so they tend to overestimate their own abilities and underestimate the difficulties of tasks.
    desired and actual
  34. By the age of 6 or 7, these four distinct self-esteems have emerged:
    • academic
    • social
    • physical
    • physical/athletic
  35. Influences on self-esteem:
    • culture
    • child-rearing practices
  36. Warm, responsive parenting with reasonable expectations for behavior produces children who feel _____.
  37. Parenting that is focused on punishment and coercion is related to feelings of _____
  38. over-indulgent parenting creates a ______ sense of self-esteem.
  39. Parental support that is conditional may cause kids to present ______
    "false selves" (to gain approval)
  40. Parental support that is conditional may cause kids to present "false selves" which leads to _____
    low self-esteem and depression
  41. common explanations for the causes of beavior (judgements)
  42. the tendency to persist at difficult tasks
    achievement motivation
  43. Two attributional styles may be observed:
    • mastery-oriented
    • learned helplessness
  44. attributes success to ability and failure to lack of effor or task difficulty
  45. What do mastery-oriented people act like?
    • expect success
    • focus on learning
    • peristent on challenging tasks
  46. attributes success to luck and failure to inability
    learned helplessness
  47. What do learned helplessness people act like?
    • expect failure
    • focus on performance rather than learning
    • have poor self-regulation
    • avoid challenges
  48. our organized concept of the self that includes the values and goals to which I am commited
  49. the four identity statuses of James Marcia's Theory of Identity Statuses
    • Identity Achievemnt
    • Identity Moratorium
    • Identity Foreclosure
    • Identity Diffusion
  50. committed to self-chosen goals after exploring options; produces a sense of well-being and knowing what lies ahead
    Identity Achievement
  51. in the process of explring options to try and identify values and goals; a "holding pattern" which may be stressful but is important
    Identity Moratorium
  52. committed to values and goals without exploring options; may have adopted goals chosen by someone else, such as parents or teachers
    Identity Foreclosure
  53. neither committed to values and goals nor trying to achieve them; may never have considered options or found it too overwhelming
    Identity diffusion
  54. Moratorium and Achievement are healthy routes to maturity, leading to.....
    higher self-esteem
  55. Adolescents in Moratorium report ______ but are more _______ and ______ problem-solvers and decision-makers.
    • stress
    • independent and rational
  56. Long-term diffused adolescents leave things to _______ or demonstrate _____ attitudes.
    • chance
    • i don't care
  57. at the root of long-term diffused adolescents is a sense of _____ about the future
  58. because long-term diffused adolescents tend to "go along with others" they experience more academic more academic and time management problems and are more likely to.....
    become depressed, try drugs, higher rates of suicide.
  59. Foreclosed adolescents may be inflexible and intolerant; most are afraid of ______ by those on whom they depend for self-esteem.
  60. Factors influencing identity formation:
    • personality
    • family
    • school
    • peers
    • culture
  61. There are cross-cultural differences in the search for identity. For example, teenagers who are members of minority groups may also experience stress relating to their developing ______ identity.
  62. a sense of group membership and attitudes and feelings associated with that membership
    ethnic identity
  63. Many teens form a ________ identity.
  64. they explore and adopt values from both their subculture and the larger culture---and this ______ identity development.
    • bicultural
    • enhances
  65. Suicide is the _____ leading cause of death among American teens.
  66. Teen suicide rates tripled between the ______.
    1960s and 1990s
  67. Females attempt suicide ____ times more than males, but males complete suicide ___ times more commonly than females.
    • 3
    • 3
    • lethal methods
  68. Caucasians have hiher suicide rates than African-American and Hispanics. However an increase is now being seen in African-American males. _____-Americans have the highest suicide rates.
  69. Suicide risk factors include:
    • poverty
    • alcohol/drug use
    • peer rejection
    • relationship problems
    • stressful events
    • abuse/neglect
    • depression or other mental illness
    • homosexuality
  70. the way we size up people we know
    person perception
  71. Children as young as ___ or ____ have formed concepts about race or ethnicity based on skin color.
    3 or 4
  72. _______ emergences during the preschool years--children prefer their own group to all other groups, and this is cross-cultural.
    in-group favoritism
  73. By the early school years, children absorb _____ toward various social groups.
  74. Out-group prejudices have been observed as young as age ____.
  75. Like their self-descriptions, children's desciptions of others are concrete until the age of ____ or so.
  76. Age of ____: desriptions are more abstract, and they have integrated personality characteristics into those comparisons.
  77. Ages of ______: can provide rich character sketches of others that combine physical traits, typical behaviors, and inner dispositions.
  78. the ability to imagine what others think or feel.
    perspective taking
  79. perspective taking is related to _______.
    cognitive development
  80. thinking about what someone else is thinking about
    recursive thought
  81. Complex forms of this are not mastered until mid-adolescence
    e.g. A thinking that B is thinking about C thinking about D
    Recursive thought
  82. Why are peer conflicts very important?
    they offer children valuable learning experiences for social problem solving.
  83. strategies that prevent or resolve disagreements and result in outcomes that are acceptable to all involved
    social problem solving
  84. applied the information processing approac to social problem solving and developed a circular model with 6 steps
    crick and dodge
  85. 6 steps of crick and dodge's Information Processing approach:
    • 1. encode social cues
    • 2. interpret social cues
    • 3. develop goals
    • 4. generate possible strategies
    • 5. evaluate probable effectiveness
    • 6. enact a response
Card Set
PSYC 310 Ch. 11