Anatomy Final I, Avian

  1. 2 families of birds:
    • Carinatae
    • Ratitae
  2. Carinatae VS Ratitae
    • Carinatae= Sternum w/ deep keel
    • Ratitae= keel is raft-like
  3. Characteristics of pelvic girdle (2):
    • Slanted
    • Fused to Vertebral Heads
    • (exception in ostriches, aren't fused ventrally)
  4. Pliable part of the bird's face
    craniofacial zone
  5. Which thoracic vertebrae are free?
    • +/- T1
    • T6, Notorium
  6. The notorium=
    T6 (free)
  7. Which ribs have ucinate processes?
  8. How can the bird rotate it's head 130o?
    • Ring Shaped Atlas
    • One Articular condyle
  9. Three bones that make up the pectoral girdle:
    • Clavicle
    • Coricoid
    • Scapula
  10. What is the "hole" within the pevlic girdle? What muscle inserts there?
    • Trioseal Fossa
    • Suprcoracoideus m
  11. Where is the hypocleidial ligament located?
    Btw the Keel & Furcula
  12. Fused tail segment=
  13. The synsacrum is composed of...
    the fused lumbar and sacral vertebrae
  14. splint bone=
  15. tibiotarsus is composed of
    fused tibia & proximal row of tarsal bones
  16. tarsometatarsus is composed of
    metatarsal bones fused with the distal row of tarsal bones
  17. antitronchanter...
    formed by:
    • ilium and ischium
    • allows bird to balance on one foot
  18. Deep concavity in ilia
    renal fossa
  19. What is the basis for upright posture
    Fusion of the Synsacrum and Pelvis
  20. Birds have 3 fused ____ bones
  21. Digits (Corresponding # of phalange)
    • 1 (#2)
    • 2 (#3)
    • 3 (#4)
    • 4 (#5)
  22. What mm are responsible for the downstroke of the wing?
    Pectoralis m
  23. What mm are resonsible for the upstroke of the wing?
    supracoracoideus (deep to pectoralis)
  24. What mm draw the wings caudally, folding them?
    Latissimus dorsi
  25. Beak is AKA
  26. maxillary rhamphotheca=
    manibular rhamphotheca=
    • maxillary= rhinotheca
    • manibular= gnathotheca
  27. long median slit in the the hard palate-
    choanal opening
  28. Bone in Tongue
    entoglossal bone
  29. Which birds => crop milk?
    • Pigeons
    • Doves
    • (prolactin)
  30. The ____ is an opening in the Laryngeal Mound connecting the _____ to the _____
    • Laryngeal Glottis
    • Oropharynx to the Larynx
  31. In which species are salivary glands most developed?
    • Gravinorous
    • Piscovorous
  32. Lack of soft palate=>
  33. Structure that assists in during hatching
    Egg Tooth
  34. What is located just behind the choanal opening
    Infundibular Cleft
  35. Nasal cavities open into the oropharynx via the...
    choanal opening
  36. Auditory tubes open into the...
    infundibular cleft
  37. The stomach is located to the ___ of the median plane
  38. The portions of the stomach
    • Proventriculus
    • Ventriculus (gizzard)
  39. Which part of the stomach secretes gastric juices?
  40. What is the Ventriculus (or Gizzard) lined with?
    • Cuticle, NOT KOILIN
    • (koilin makes cuticle that lines gizzard)
  41. Which part of the stomach is biconvex, disk shaped and well muscled?
    Ventriculus, or Gizzard
  42. Remnant of the yolk sac-
    Vetilline/Meckel's Diverticulum
  43. Where is the Vitelline/Meckel's diverticulum located?
  44. What are the major structures of the LI?
    • 2 Ceca
    • Colorectum
  45. Ceca are located at the ____ junction
  46. In what type of birds are ceca well developed?
    Granivorous (long in ostrich)
  47. Largest organ in the birds body?
  48. The liver is largest in which types of birds?
    => __%
    • Piscivorous
    • Insectivorous
    • 3-4%
  49. Marek's Dz is characterized by:
    Enlarged/grey liver
  50. Lobes of bird liver?
    • L
    • R
  51. Parts of the avian pancreas:
    • Dorsal
    • Ventral
  52. Avian nostrils are covered by:
  53. The caudal nasal sinus opens into the
    infraorbital sinus
Card Set
Anatomy Final I, Avian
Anatomy Final I, Avian