1. ALbert Bandura
    said that learning occured by observing others in society. He found that there was a reciprocal relationship betwen enviorment and behavior which became more widely known as the social learning theory.
  2. Bloom's Taxonomy
    Benjamin Bloom (1956) and a group of educaiton psychologists develped a seix tiered taxononmy or classification system, based on intellectiual hebavior important to the learning process. In ascending order, it consists of knowledge (reclaling information)comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and elvaluation. While all levels of hieracrvy are important, good teaching is partly defined by the degree tot ehwhich teachers can guide students to think at higher levels of blooms taxonmy.
  3. Jerome Bruner (1963)
    Constructivism-he said tha tlearning was an active process wehreby students concstruct new ideas and cencepts based upon their currnt/past experiences and knowledge.
  4. John Dewey
    An early advocate for experiential learing (ie learning through experience) hohn was concerned with how atreacher centered classroom could negatively impact the classroom enviroment and learning .He also influenced the progressive movement in education which emphasized problem solvoing and the interest and needs of students .
  5. Differentialted instruction
    as explained by carol ann tomilsom. it is an approcah which addressed the diversity of learners int eh clasrom. Mutiple adatpiaion are made by the teacher to reach individual learners ath thier own resprective stages. As greagory and chapman pointe out, teachers can differentainte content , assesment, performance task and instructional strategies.
  6. Emergen literacy
    Macie clay's therory that a thte bginning stages of learning to read, the reader devolps an association between print and meaning. during this stage of reading development, children engage in retelling familiar stories from memory, using pictures to make predictions, connecting sound with words.
  7. emotional intelliegence
    Daniel goleman's idea that emotional aptitude can be divided into five domains: self-awarenss, managing emotion, selfmotivation, empaty, and social skills
  8. Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of development
    delieneates what he asserted to be the eight stages of progression toward self-esteem. The eigh stages- hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, caring and wisdom-begin in infancyand contiue throughout one's lifetime.
  9. experiential learning
    which is credidte to dewey, paolo frier, and carl rogers, amoung others, says that the teacher must facilitate learning by creating a posive classrom enviroment in which students are activiely engaged. This type of learing is based on teh students experience therough field trip, role play, ect.
  10. Howard Gardner
    father of the multiple intelligences theory asserts that each person's level of intelligence is a calculus of eight factors: linguistic, musical, logical/mathematical. spatial, bodily/kinestheitc, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and personal.
  11. Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning
    suggests that children proceed through a series of stages during which they refine their concept of justice.
  12. Learning sty
  13. learning styles
    means that all of us learn through our sense (auditory, vfisual, and tactile/kinestheitc) and that the teacher should not only teach to a variety of sensory modalitites but also assess the learning styles of the individuals in the classroom.
  14. Mel levine
    In all kinds of minds he tries to understand the neurodevelopment of children with learing,develomental and behavioral problems by recognizing their variations but relying on their strengths in an effort to help them succeed.
  15. abraham maslows (1943) heirarchy of human needs
    has five stages. the first is phsiological and biological needs (hunger, thirst, and shelter). after theose funamental needs have been satisfied can the next stage, safety needs (security, protection from physical and emotional harm, helath) be addressed. The hierarchy is rounded out by belonging and love (family, friemds and feleling of acceptance in relations with others) esteem (self respect, autonomy, status, recognition, and attention); and self actuatlization (potntial to "become" who you can become and to achieve success in life).
  16. montessori theroty
    Based on the child develponemt therories of italian educatior maria montessori. it emphasizes self directed activity on the part of the child and clinical observation on teh part of the teacher (often called a director, directiress, or guide). Montessori said it was important to adapt the childre's learning enviornment to his or her developmental level. children made choices in a montessori classroom, which is often multi age and characterized by students working independently on different projects. she said it was imprtant to stress physical activity and both gross and fine motor skills when children are abosrbing abstract concepts and practical skills. while encouraging self correction.
  17. Jean Piage (1955)
    A SWISS PSYCHOLOGIST WHO CONSTRUCTE D AMODEL OF CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT AND LEARNing based on the idea that the deveolpng child builds cognitive strctures fro understanding his enviroment. he identifited four stages of cognitive development. Stage 1, sensorimortor period (birth to 2) see the infant move from simple reflexes to conscious behavior. The preoperational perios (2-7) child develping use of symbols. COncrete operationa perios (7-11) child develops logic. the final stage is fromal operaitonal period (11 to early adult) when hypothetical thinking develops. As the chld moves through the different stages of development, they become ready for more challenging cognitive experience.
  18. Reggio Emilla Theory
    challenges some more traditonal conception s of teacher competence and develp0mentallyh approriate practice. She asserts the importance of "being confused"as contribuitn to learning, of purposfuly allowing mistakes to happen and of starting a projec tiwht no clear sence of where it might lead.
  19. Lev Vygotsky (1978)
    developed the social cultural learning model. He proposed that culture is the prime determinant of indiviual developmemt, and that language is an important process in the cultural learing scheme. Likewise, children learn when they are in a n enviroment in which the are supporte dby a more able thinkger. Scaffolding is a metaphoric treas usted to show hwo parents and teachers provide temporry asistance to children and studens by modeling approopriat ebehavior or skills. In the classroon teachers model or demonstrate specific strategies and gradually move the scaffolding away by shifting the respobnsibilitity to the studnet to demonstrate. The scaffolding must place the students in the zone of proximal development, which is the span betwen what they can already do independentlyand what they can do with the guidance of an adult or more able peer.
  20. Grant Wiggings
    Concept of "understanding by design" presents a framework for improving student achievement. By emphasizing the teacher's critical role as a designer of student learning , his theory words within the standars-drivien curriculum to help teqaher s clarigy learning goals , devise revealin assesment of student understanding , and craft effective and engaging learning activities.
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