an ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis.
identification with and feeling a part of an ethnic group and exclusion from certain other groups because of its affiliation.
development, westernization, and modernization.
a book written by an anthropologist that lives in a said culture and writes about their experience.
the exploration of human diversity in time and space.
Five General Fields of Anthropology
- Applied Anthropology
the study of human society and culture.
traditions and customs transmitted through learning that govern belief and behavior.
Characteristics of Culture
- Culture Seizes Nature
- Adaptive and Maladaptive
- Acts on Many Levels
the notion that my culture is the correct culture. Sets cultures apart from eachother.
the anthropological notion that all cultures are valid adaptations to the place and time they exist.
Characteristics of All Primates
- Primary sense in face is sight
- Primary sense of touch is hands
- Brain Complexity
- Parental Investment
- Social Beings
What makes humans different from other primates?
- We use tools.
- Communication Systems
- Sexual Dimorfism
- Sharing, Cooperation, and Division of labor
- mating, exogomy, and kinship
- extend credit to rip eachother off.
organisms only change enough to stay the same.
How did mankind come to be?
How did race come to be?
People were isolated from eachother and adapted to the environment in which they lived.
Three Components of Social Status
Rule of racial classification that classifies the offspring of parents of different races as the race of the subordinate group.
Characteristics of Language
- Unlimited words
- Non verbal communication
smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
words and their meaningful parts
the language that we learn affects the way we think
the typical behavioral pattern in any given culture.
a person who has been assigned a new status and cannot get back into society.
What labels you a deviant?
- Violation of Law
- Violation of Edicate
- Aesthetic Standards
People that lack control over deviant behavior.
learned ow to plant crops
herded domesticated animals
Characteristics of Hunters and Gatherers (Foragers)
- lived in band society's with less than 100 people
- Sexual Divisions of Labor
- Age Role Distinction
- Equalitaristic Political Systems
- Anamystic Religion
Characteristics of Horticulture and Pastoralism
- Not Mobile
- No Machinery
- Short term land use
- No fertilizer
- Tools were simple
Characteristics of Agriculture
- Intensive use of land
- Use of domesticated animals
- Control water
Marvin Harris believes that behavioral structure is what brings everything together and makes life.
- Leslie White says it is the driving force of cultural evolution.
- Greater dependency on technology
- More tools in tool kits.
- More specialization tools.
- Greater dependency on non-human energy and increasing complaxity of energy sources.
Five components of fund
- Subsistance Fund
- Replacement Fund
- Ceremonial Fund
- Social Fund
- Rent Fund
a subordinate class of people bound economically to superordinate class.
Methods of Distribution
- Market System
Characteristics of State
- Population Control
- Law and Judicary
- Law and Enforcement
Causes of State Formation
- Hydraulic System
- Ecological Diversity
- Population Control/ Warfare