Which kind of T cells regulate the immune response by producing stimulatory lymphokines?
D. helper T cells
Which of the following characterize B cells?
E. all of the choices are correct
All of the following are functions of the lymphatic system EXCEPT:
B. transporting gasses, nutrients, and metabolic wastes to parts of the body which have exchange boundaries with the external enviornment
All of the following are outward signs of inflammation EXCEPT:
D. lower temperature
The clonal selection theory states that:
D when a B or T cell is stimulated by encountering a correct antibody, it divides to form a clone of the cells that will respond to the same antibody
A. when a B or T cell is stimulated by encountering the correct antigen,
it divides to form a clone of cells that will respond to the same
Allergies are hypersensitivities to substances that would ordinarily do no harm to the body
TRUE of FALSE
Which of these statements is NOT true about complement?
B. complement is required for formatio of antigen-antibody complexes
Which of the following is part of the body's specific defenses against disease?
C. antibody production
Which statement is NOT true of the T cells?
C. T cells change into plasma cells and produce antibodies when stimulated
Maturation of B cells occurs in the:
D. bone marrow
A. are soluable proteins that act as signaling molecules to stimulate white blood cells
Autoantibodies are produced against substances in the enviornment, resulting in a number of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple selerosis
TRUE of FALSE
Complement and infection are specific kinds of antibodies
TRUE of FALSE
D. all of the above are true
Which of the following statements about B cells is true?
E. all of the above are true
________are some of the same type since they are derived fromthe same B cell and are against a specific antigen?
E. monoclonal antibodies
All of the following are part of the lymphatic system EXCEPT:
D. the thyroid gland
Natural Killer (NK) cells that destroy virus-infected cells and cancer cell are
C. large, granular lymphocytes
Match the phase of HIV with the Helper T -cell count and HIV per ml plamsa:
1> 3. Acute Phase
2> 1. AIDs
3> 2. Chronic phase
* HIV count in blood rises drastically and Helper T cell continues to decline __________
* HIV gradually increases and Helper T cell gradually decreases __________
* HIV count peaks and the crashes due to immune response; Helper T-cell count crashes and then gradually declines __________
* HIV count in blood rises drastically and Helper T cell continues to decline _____2_____
* HIV gradually increases and Helper T cell gradually decreases _____3_____
* HIV count peaks and the crashes due to immune response; Helper T-cell
count crashes and then gradually declines _____1_____
Maturation of T cells occurs in the
Interferon is a protein that binds to the receptors of non-infected cells causing them to produce substances that interfere with viral replication
TRUE or FALSE
The second line of defense in the body that takes longer to become functional, since the cells much be recruited to producce specific responses against the antigens
TRUE or FALSE
___cells are responsible for cell0mediated immunity and__cells are responsible for antibody-mediated immunity
D T and B cells; T and B cells
A. T; B
The presence of antibodies in a newborn baby is most often due to:
A. antibodies that crossed the placenta from the mothers blood
The cell responsible for producing a rapid antibody response against a foreign protein when it is encountered years after the first encounter is a:
D. memory B cell
The lymphoid organ in which B lymphocytes are produced is the:
C. red bone marrow
A. molecules produced by white blood cells that stimulate other white blood cells, namely T cells
Which of the following T cells are mismatched with their functions?
A. memory T cells- mediate apoptosis
The activities of macrophages:
E. A and C are correct
Which antibody class is most prevalent in the bloodstream?
As lymph passes through the sinuses of lymph nodes, it is filtered by _____ that engulfs debris and pathogens
What specific part off the antibody determines that class of antibody?
C. constant region
If a person is bitten by a highly venomous snake and revcieves a dose of venom sufficient to kill several people that person does not have time to build up his immunity over the next week to neutralize the venom. However, hospitials carry "antivenin" made from injecting horses with small-to-larger dosages of snake venom, and harvesting the antibodies from the horse plasma, this is an example of:
B. passive immunity
The problem with tissue rejection following organ transplants
E. all the choices are correct
The first line of defense against invading microorganisms is nonspecific.
TRUE of FALSE
Nonspecific defenses against disease incluse all of the following EXCEPT:
Which kind of T cell is most important in the remobal of cancer cells or virally infected cells from the body?
D. cytotoxic T cells
Most of the lymph fluid is returned to the bloodstream through the thoracic duct to the:
B. left subclavian vein
Immesiate allergic responses are caused by ____antibodies:
Rejection of transplanted tissue is treated with immunosuppressive drugs that prevent the activity of B cells
TRUE or FASLE
Edward Jenner promoted the use of cowpox infection that was very similar to the more dangerous smallpox as a vaccination to provide patients immunity from future smallpox epidemics. this is an example of:
C. active immunity
What is the fate of plasma cells after the threat of infection is over?
D. they undergo apoptosis
The primary hosts for HIV are
B. helper T cells
Which is NOT part of a description of an antibody molecule?
A. forms an X-shaped protein molecule
Lymph consists of
B. water, fat molecules, ions, nutrients, gases, proteins, and antibodies
Which of the following is NOT involved in specific immunity?